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Task Solutions of Observations of Behaviours and Traits

Task Solutions of Observations of Behaviours and Traits

Running head: HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
Highly Gifted Learners
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 HIGHLY …

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Running head: HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
Highly Gifted Learners
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
Giftedness by the term means something to yield positive outcomes. It is a difference
based on the brain activity that adds to our neurodiverse and dynamic world. Due to the
differences based on neurology of brain, the highly talented adolescents follow a unique
intellectual, social, academic and emotional path than the other neurotypical children.
Giftedness is defined as a natural ability to detect and interpret the surroundings in a
sophisticated manner the deviate from standards of age appropriateness (Porter, 2020) . A
child who is gifted has abilities that exceeds th e capabilities and intelligence of other children
of the same age group, experience, and environment. They tend to stand out from the
population. Gifted children can vary in their level or types of giftedness. Students who are
highly capable are special in dividuals with a wide range of skills and interests (Papadopoulos,
2020 ). Few thrive in a variety of subjects, while others in one only. Giftedness is most of the
determined by a combination of qualitative observations of behaviours and traits.
The main characteristics of the highly gifted children are: (a) Rapid comprehension –
A high ability to assimilate and acquire range of information quickly, paired with persistent
demand for intellectual stimulation. Children who are extremely gifted mostly operated at
varying speed than their colleagues who are neurotypical, jumping ahead or putting a pause
just to delve deeply into the areas which interests them the mos t (Eren et al., 2018) . (b) An
understanding of the normal – Difficulty in concentrating on non -int ellectually hard tasks such
as repetitive materials or chores that needs rote learning. Students who are actually gifted
needs lesser time in mastering an idea (Beckmann & Minnaert, 2018) . (c) Inclined towards
Complexity – They are intuitive in nature and a sk countless questions such as ―why‖ as they
want to comprehend the ―whole picture‖ or the concept of learning. (d) Desire for Precision –
They appreciate nuances and precision in their thought processes and expression. They tend
to struggle in assessment t hat are multiple choice or requires a definite decision in accordance
with minimal context. (e) High Expectations – They have a tendency to hold oneself and the
2 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
high standards of others that can manifest as perfectionism or a strong sense of fairness. It
ca n make this difficult to assess the norms imposed by others or engage with the same age
group of peers who does not belong to the same standard. (f) Divergent Interests – Deeply
gifted student will look for children of older age or people who can be seen sh aring the same
level of interests or may prefer to associate with someone younger who will be flexible in
participating, thinking and imaginative. Most of the times the gifted children are not
identified properly and thrive in environment that is not chall enging can lead to the
underachievement of the student (Bildren, 2018) .
The three paradigm or framework of Dai and Chen (2013), practically identifies the
―what‖, ―why‖, ―what‖ and ―who‖ of the giftedness of the children. The first gifted child
paradigm ha s elements such as coherence, conceptual distinction, practical and empirical
grounding to answer the four questions related to giftedness. Not every student is gifted, and
gifted student cannot be taught in the regular classroom as it will lead to achieve ment of
unrealistic outcomes due to inability of the teachers as they are not trained in the aspect to
teach gifted children. The three paradigms is mainly built on the framework are (a) the
paradigm of ―gifted child‖ (b) the ―talent development‖ (c) the n eeds -based differentiation
(Dai, 2018) . The first paradigm hypothesis that the nature of giftedness is universal to the
attributes of human that can be evaluated accurately by the usage of intelligence tests. The
theory of multiple intelligence suggests t hat all the person possesses different kinds of ability
such as visual spatial intelligence, linguistic verbal intelligence, logical mathematical
intelligence, bodily kinesthetics intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence,
Intrapersona l intelligence, and Naturalistic intelligence (Gardner, 2020) . The children who
are gifted in the aspect of visual spatial intelligence are pro at visualising concepts and things.
They are excellent in directions, charts, maps, videos and pictures. In Ling uistic Verbal
Intelligence they are capable of using words fluently in reading, writing and speaking. They
3 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
are creative in nature in writing and memorization of information. In the mathematical logical
intelligence , the individuals are excellent in recogni tion of patterns, reasoning and problem
solving. A gifted children does not belong to the same population as the characteristics is
associated with fast paced learning, comprehending complicated concepts and higher level of
abstraction reasoning (Kornhaber , 2019) . Humans have great control over their body and
gifted children high in bodily kinesthetics’ intelligence have graceful movements of body, in
performances, and physical control. Musical intelligence means high cognitive ability in
understanding rhyt hm patterns, sounds and great at composition of music (Chen & Gardner,
2018) . The intrapersonal and interpersonal skills suggest social interaction and being aware
of own’s feelings and desires. The naturalistic intelligence is a recently added version in the
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence that individuals tend to be closer to nature and has
interest in exploring, nurturing and learning about the environment (Cavas & Cavas, 2020) .
Hence, all individuals have different levels of intelligence that cannot be easily identified in
terms of academics only. Children who score high tend to have higher cognitive ability and
contribute significantly to the culture in a number of ways as intelligence can be channelled
flexibly and used; however, motivations and environmental circumstances play an important
role. Besides the great level of mental ability what propelled the paradigm was that it was
founded on the belief that brilliant people are meant to be special. The children and adults are
distinctive qual itatively from the majority of the population since they demonstrate
fundamental variances in their ways of thinking, education, socio -emotional qualities and
requirements as well as trajectories and paths of development. The gifted paradigm has
implemente d IQ tests as the first criterion for understanding the status of giftedness. Although
now it includes rating scales and achievement tests as well. The service provided to the gifted
can be distinguished in terms of extremely gifted, creatively gifted, gif ted underachievers and
students with dual exceptionalities. It is essential to identify students before creating
4 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
provisions for them to avail teaching services. Gifted children can be of various types and
missed in the population. A strong differentiation between the talent and the giftedness is
proposed by the differentiated model of Talent and Giftedness. In the particular paradigm,
giftedness is referred to the capability of the children to acquire and apply untrained and
voluntarily expressed innate abi lities in one of the domains which the children tops. Whereas
the concept of talent is referred as the child’s exceptional mastery of skills and abilities that
are developed systematically in a minimum of one field of activity. The paradigm includes
five d omains of aptitude such as intellectual, creative, sensorimotor, socio -affective and
others. The needs of the gifted children must be considered before putting them up for any
facility (Wiley, 2020) . Intelligence is important factor to identify the gifted children however,
it is not always essential for an intelligent children to be gifte d. Other environmental factors
play as a catalyst in imparting skills to the gifted children. The interpersonal catalyst such as
personality, motivation, and the environmen tal catalyst are inclusive of instructions, technical
supports, environmental opportunities. The gifted programming must provide opportunities o
challenges frequently for gifted students and enable them to work on passionate areas (De
Jong et al., 2021) . I t also allows the gifted children to have the opportunities to learn with
peers who are intellectual in a dynamic atmosphere. It has been believed that the pedagogy is
critical as it promotes creative thinking and learning. Curriculum that is affective pla ys a
critical part in the education of the gifted children. A number of intervention programmes are
brought into picture for gifted children such as counselling for emotional and social
difficulties and self -development. In the Talent Development Paradigm defines that the
ability of gifted children certain can be recognized by the performance in their art, social
leadership, or writing. Gifted children have specific intelligence ability as well as taking
general intelligence in consideration. In the talent paradigm, the base of gifted children
focuses more upon the dynamic talent, domain specific, in-depth experiences in a particular
5 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
domain, role of motivation , social and technical support. The identification of the gifted
children can be done the qualitativ e and quantitative analysis to determine the area of
intelligence. The gifted children must have diverse range of opportunities to be inclusive in
the talent programs developed for the talented students offering learning experiences that is
mostly based on interest and enriched learning for further exploration in the area of intensive
interest. The children with higher level of giftedness cannot be provided with opportunities in
regular school settings or in traditional system of teaching. It can be challen ging in nature
hence, in order to meet their needs, the specific talent development models are developed
with an attempt to surmount the constraints faced in the school settings by adding the
supports and resources required from community members, parents, teachers and others. The
Differentiation paradigm mostly focuses on the needs being met on school subjects in the
classroom timing. It is situational and when the content of curriculum falls beyond the zone
of proximal development, it calls for the differ entiation. It emphasizes on developing the
depth of the curriculum, pace of learning, representational complexity. The educational needs
of the students must be met with the appropriate level of instruction and activities in
curriculum. The giftedness of t he children will not be nurtured if not provided with the
contextual education that fits along with the students need. The services provided in the
educational centre has to be more learner centric and qualitative in nature. As Robert
Sternberg suggested i n his Triarchic theory of intelligence which comprises of three sub
theories namely – contextual, experiential and componential (Sternberg, 2018) . The ―g‖ factor
measures ―academic intelligence‖ whereas the ―s‖ factor measures more specific intelligence
of the gifted children. The contextual theory means that the level of intelligence is associated
with the environment of the individual. It is based on one’s ability to choose the best
environment, adapt to changes in the environment and shape the environment . The
experiential theory means that the experience from the form of novel to the level of
6 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
automation can be applicable. The componential theory is further subdivided into three parts
such as meta components, performance components, knowledge acquisition c omponents
(Knight, 2020) . The meta components enable us to control, assess, and check the mental
processing in terms of problem solving, decision making and plans. The performance
components deal with the enablement of the actions and plans to which one reaches at the
level of decision making and knowledge acquisition as the learning of new information.
It can be concluded that children can be different in their level of intelligence and it
cannot be bounded in terms of one specific domains. They are diver se in nature and have
various level of intelligence that needs to be identified and nurtured as per the requirements.
Hence, the gifted children who have higher level of intelligence needs environment that
challenges their level of skills and offered with the environment that is different than the
regular classroom setting.
7 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
References
Beckmann, E., & Minnaert, A. (2018). Non -cognitive characteristics of gifted students with
learning disabilities: An in -depth systematic review. Frontiers in psychology , 9, 504.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00504/full
Bildiren, A. (2018). Developmental characteristics of gifted children aged 0 –6 years: parental
observations. Early Child Development and Care , 188 (8), 997 -1011.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03004430.2017.1389919
Cavas, B., & Cavas, P. (2020). Multiple intelligences theory — Howard Gardner. In Science
education in theory an d practice (pp. 405 -418). Springer, Cham.
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978 -3-030 -43620 -9_27
Chen, J. Q., & Gardner, H. (2018). Assessment from the Perspective of
Mu ltiple -Intelligences Theory. Contemporary Intellectual Assessment: Theories,
Tests, and Issues , 164.
https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=JA1mDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA164&dq=ho
ward+gardner+multiple+intelligences&ots=VAHDCahHfs&sig=NXdVyKz –
jDGoHJc2 F5_GtSyAAXk&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=howard%20gardner%20multiple%20int
elligences&f=false
Dai, D. Y. (2018). A history of giftedness: Paradigms and paradoxes. In Handbook of
giftedness in children (pp. 1 -14). Springer, Cham.
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978 -3-319 -77004 -8_1
De Jong, N. A., Boon, M., van Gorp, B., Büttner, S. A., Kamans, E., & Wolfensberger, M. V.
C. (2021). Framework for analyzing conceptions of excellen ce in higher education: a
reflective tool. Higher Education Research & Development , 1 -15.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07294360.2021.1915964
8 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
Eren, F., Çete, A. Ö., Avcil, S., & Baykara, B. (2018). Emotional and behavioral
characteristics of gifted children and their families. Archives of
Neuropsychiatry , 55 (2), 105. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060660/
Gardner, H. (2020). A synthesizing mind: A memoir from the creator of multiple intelligences
theory . MIT Press. https://books.google.co. in/books?hl=en&lr=&id= –
1T6DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=howard+gardner+multiple+intelligences&ots=idZm2mT
-A7&sig=BJ5TYu2TkGHbhHZX78lx7O6Z
Knight, G. R. (2020). An Intelligence -Based Approach to Evaluating Project Management
Education: Applying Sternberg’s Tria rchic Model of Successful Intelligence to
Explore Project Managers’ Perceptions of Their Education (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Hartford).
https://www.proquest.com/openview/0f8a06f910fe52eab9aecac4f39f3521/1?pq –
origsite=gscholar&cbl=44156
Kornhaber, M. L. (2019). The theory of mul tiple intelligences. In The Cambridge handbook
of intelligence (pp. 659 -678). Cambridge University Press.
https://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/public ations/the -theory -of-multiple -intelligences
PAPADOPOULOS, D. (2020). Psychological framework for gifted children’s cognitive and
socio -emotional development: A review of the research literature and
implications. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Sc ientists , 8(1), 305 -323.
https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.666308
Porter, L. (2020). Gifted young children: A guide for teachers and parents . Routledge.
https://api.taylorfrancis.com/content/books/mono/download?identifierName=doi&identifierValu
e=10.4324/9781003115816&type=googlepdf
Sternberg, R. J. (2018). The tri archic theory of successful intelligence . The Guilford Press.
https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018 -36604 -005
9 HIGHLY GIFTED LEARNERS
Wiley, K. R. (2020). The social and emotional world of gifted students: Moving beyond the
label. Psychology in the Schools , 57 (10), 1528 -1541.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pits.22340

Assignment Answers Pdf Of Modern Transportation Network:300674

Assignment Answers Pdf Of Modern Transportation Network:300674

Democracy Building in Nepal HIR402

Democracy Building in Nepal HIR402

Running head: DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Journey to Republic: The European Union’s Involvement in Democracy -Building in Nepal
N …

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Running head: DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Journey to Republic: The European Union’s Involvement in Democracy -Building in Nepal
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Student ID
1 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Abstract
The study assessed the European Union’s involvement in aiding Nepal’s fast transition from a
kingdom to a democrat country. Its citizens exerted authority on the government regime through
elected leaders . Nepal had tried to switch from a kingdom to a democratic republic before but it
had failed . Still, it had failed in most attempts because the kingdom’s leadership would not allow
democratic ideologies to be integrated into the country’s governance. The study used qualitative
secondary reviews , and case studies with the help of process tracing approach to pinpoint and
establish the role that EU p layed in helping Nepal become a democratic country. Nepal’s fast
transition from monarchy to a democratic republic was largely due to the European Union’s
support. The study used primary and secondary sources and case studies to assess the
significance of the EU’s role in enabling Nepal’s democratic transition. The European Union
played a crucial role in helping Nepal become a democratic country. The EU began democratic
efforts in Nepal in 2006. It provided humanitarian assistance and financi al aid .
2 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Tabl e of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 3
1.1 Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 3
1.2 Background of study ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 4
1.3 Research Aim ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 5
1.4 Research Objective ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 5
1.5 Research questions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 6
Reference ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 24
3 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction
Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas. It shares a border with India and Tibet. It
is rich in cultural history. It is currently a democratic country with US$ 33.66 billion and a
population of 29.14 billion ( World Bank, 2022) . Nepal is a democratic country, but its history of
demo cracy is not long. The country received its democracy in 2015. However, the journey to
democracy started long ago, in 1950, after the end of the Rana Regime that ruled the lands of
Nepal for 104 years. The initiation of democratization occurred in 1950, bu t King Mahendra
Bikram Shah suppressed it in 1960 ( Guragain, 2021) . The party -less system was the strategy
used by the King to maintain its control over the country. The King had convinced that the party
less system was the key to achieving success, given the country’s demography. The said system
continued in the country without any restraint till 1990. From the start of the 1990s, the
movement for creating a democratic nation started in Nepal. Many efforts were taken to establish
democracy in Nepal ( Lawoti , 2007) . The mass movement helped to establish democracy during
the middle years of the 1990s, but the inability to create a stable political condition under
democracy it could not sustain. As a result, it took 25 years from 1990 to establish the desired
democracy. It is found that European Union (EU) supported Nepal in its cause of establishing
democracy. The EU provided various aid and had taken many strategies such that Nepal could
achieve its goal of democratizing the country ( Lakier, 2007) . Therefore, the objective of this
paper is to study the involvement of the EU in the process of democratization of Nepal.
However, the paper assesses the involvement of the EU by studying the democratization process
during the years 2000 to 2015.
4 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
1.2 Background of th e study
The concept of democracy emerged in Nepal in 1950 after the mass revolution against the
then Rana regime. However, the concept could not materialize due to the active monarchy and
the party less system introduced by King Mahendra. This continued t ill 1990; the Nepali
Congress Party initiated a mass movement to establish democracy. On the contrary, this
movement was disrupted in 2002 when king Gyanendra took over the power, and it was done
again in 2005. However, with the massive participation of 4 million people in the country, the
democracy in Nepal was re -established.
Moreover, it should be noted that correct measures could have sustained the democracy
established in the early 1990s, and the policies were taken. After establishing the democracy in
1990, a multiparty system was established, and a clear specification of that has been made in the
constitution. Three parliamentary elections after establishing democracy in the 1990s were
conducted in Nepal. The elections were conducted in 1991, 1994 a nd 1999. Along with that,
local elections were conducted in 1992 and 1997 ( Hachhethu, 2009) . However, this democracy
did not last long due to the emergence of unsuitable adversities for running a democratic country.
It is found that the major reason behind arising of an unsustainable democratic system in Nepal
in the 1990s was inter -party and intraparty conflicts. Along with that rise in corruption, poor
governance, misuse of power, loopholes in the constitution and high unemployment weakened
the democracy of the country.
Apart from that, there was a high frequency of government change ( Jeffery, 2021) . The
sudden rise in power of the Communist Party of Nepal and the NC party made the multiparty
system democracy a two -party system. It destroyed the essence o f democracy in Nepal. This
continuation of the rise in anarchy and political instability led to the establishment of the
5 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
monarchy system in Nepal in 2002 again when King Gyanendra seized power from the
democratic government. Therefore, it can be said that Nepal went through political instability
during the entire process of democratization. By the time it had been realized, it was difficult for
Nepal to complete the entire democratization process on its own ( Basu, 2020) . The country
required proper strategy and support that could lead to democracy. Studies showed that Nepal
received this face. It has been found that the United States supported Neola significantly by
providing fund aid to the country to make national expenditures.
Under Marshall Plan, the Un ited States provided NPR 268 billion to Nepal. The fund
helped the country reduce the poverty level to a great extent and helped construct roads, establish
industries, and conduct other infrastructural activities. Apart from the United States, Nepal
receiv ed aid from the European Union. The EU countries collaborated with organizations related
to marginalized groups of women and the people belonging to the Dalit class, people fighting for
human rights and democracy and people supporting the cause of the excl uded groups. Apart
from that, EU countries were involved in developing various projects in Nepal, such as
veterinary services, rural development, irrigation development, aviation development and
education development programmes. Additionally, it is found t hat EU countries supported Nepal
in its democracy.
1.3 Research Aim
The EU supported Nepal in various ways, including the development of the country and
the process of democratization. Therefore, the aim of this study is to find out the role that the EU
played in helping Nepal attain its democracy .
1.4 Research Objective
ï‚· To find the role of the EU in helping Nepal to become a democratic .
6 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
ï‚· To find the agenda of the EU in the promotion of d emocracy in Nepal.
ï‚· To find if the EU promoted democracy in Nepal via aid.
ï‚· To find the interest of the EU in promoting democracy in Nepal.
1.5 Research questions
ï‚· Did EU play a specific role in helping Nepal attain democracy?
ï‚· What was the agenda of EU promot ing democracy in Nepal?
ï‚· Did EU promote democracy in Nepal through Aid?
ï‚· Whether there is a particular local and global interest in EU endorsing in Nepal?
1.6 S tudy Rationale
The study is important as the findings summarize how the EU , and other players helped
Nepal to transition from a kingdom to an independent country. Initially, Nepalese were unable to
attain democracy on their own. The study results will be crucial in creating a tactical bilateral
agreement between Nepal and the European Union for present and upcoming cohorts , given the
European Union’s support in Nepal’s democratic transition. As Nepal is still young as matters of
democracy are concerned, therefore it needs guidance and direction from a reputable member of
the global community. As a result, identifying the best international partner for the country
requires consideration of those that were instrumental in the process of democracy.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1: Whether EU played a particular role in helping Nepal a ttain democracy
Nepal is making the third attempt to get democracy since 1951 (Hachhethu, 2009). In the
2007 -13 approach, the European Commission has identified peacebuilding and education as the
two main areas of its support. The support for peace buildi ng and education significantly
contributed to Nepal’s goal of restructuring the country into a democracy . In the European
7 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Commission aid package of 2002 -06 of EUR 70 million, EUR 56 million were allocated to
poverty reduction, EUR 10 million for democracy programs, and the remaining EUR4
integration into the international economy. Factors like political instability and insurgency, and
poverty made the concept of conflict mitigation key to EC initiatives. The overall goal of EC was
to reduce poverty and cont rol conflict, which was to be realized in short term goals, medium –
term goals and long term goals. The EC shifted interest from contributing to democracy through
economic cooperation to democracy promotion through conflict alleviation to reduce the effect
of armed insurgency. During the Maoist insurgency, it led to the death of some 14000 Nepalis.
Hachhethu (2009) asserts that in the 2007 -13 approach, signalled education and
peacebuilding are the two primary areas to support Nepal. The EU has mediated in four main
areas : the rule of law, human rights, conflict resolution, peacebuilding, and the democratization
strengthening process. In the last CA election transition period, the EU prioritized inclusive
democracy, constitution -making, and peacebuilding. Th e EU has had great interest and used a lot
of resources to contribute to peace in Nepal by focusing on particular areas of interest.
Financial help to Nepal is one of the specific role that EU’s played in helping Nepal to
become a democracy. The European Economic Community (ECC) had offered significant
economic help to Nepalis starting from the 1970s when diplomatic ties were establishe d with the
country. The ECC offered support to education programs, health, and humanitarian assistance.
Therefore, the financial help of the EU to Nepal was to promote economic stability and empower
poor Nepalis and safeguard people from human rights injustices that the government perpetrated,
particularly those fighting for democracy. Reflecting on the last twenty years of EU aid to Nepal
in the democratization of Nepal, the aid assistance has been increasing based on the new political
situation. The new EU Nepal Cooperation program was adopted in 2014 to run to 2020; its funds
8 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
were tripled to € 360 million to help rural d evelopment, enhance quality education, reinforce
democratic governance and create jobs.
Another specific role played by EU in the democratization process in Nepal was
application of diplomatic pressure. Due to the humanitarian crisis observed in Nepal af ter
domestic wars and internal clashes , the EU initiated diplomatic pressure on Nepal’s government
to uphold and safeguard human rights. Part of the diplomatic pressure placed on the Nepal
government by the EU was to ensure that democracy prevail in the co untry as the kingdom could
not safeguard and reserve peoples’ rights and privileges, as demonstrated through the deaths of
over 14000 people in Nepal due to the nonstop wars since 1990 (Limbu, 2020).
2.2: The EU Democracy promotion agenda in Nepal
In 201 8, the Saferworld’s Myanmar team visited Nepal to learn from their colleagues.
Some differences and similarities were learned from the concluded conflict and peace
agreements. Nepal’s civil war was fueled by widespread discontent due to a history of
margin alization, discrimination based on gender and identity, poor governance and endemic
inequality. The push behind Nepal’s move toward federalism was the same as Myanmar. Nepal
saw federalism as a solution to control diversity, promote democracy, and enhance
administrative transparency and development across the country. The peace accord was signed in
2006, and a new constitution was enacted in 2015, encouraging a federal -state model.
Agreements have ended large scale violence in Nepal, but there are several u nderlying
grievances yet to be addressed (Smith et al., 2020) . Although the federal model in Nepal has
been faulted for failing to deal with the rooted marginalization of some native communities ,
various groups have interpreted its vision differently; hence, resulting in further polarization.
9 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
On the other hand, in Myanmar, the peace is slowly progressing well. The Myanmar
Armed Forces and government struck a deal to ceasefire nationwide in 2015 . The two parties
committed to dialogue to develop a federal system of government as proposed by EAOs.
Federalism is considered a crucial part of any solution in creating endurance peace, which
ensures ethnic groups equally have a say in governance (Smith et al., 2020). Same to Nepal, non –
inclusivity is the main issue. Over 20 of Myanmar’s several ethnic armed organizations have yet
to sign NCA, and conflicts over 60 years, conflicts have lowered trust among the conflicting
parties. Also, in Myanmar, the go vernment does not trust the EAOs, and EAOs do not trust the
government, which hinders peace.
2.3: Democracy promotion by the EU in Nepal
According to Gellner and Hachhethu (2008), one of the international community
members actively participating in Nepal’ s democratic process was the European Union. Nepal
and the (ECC) formed a formal mutual collaboration in 1975, working together in education,
humanitarian aid, and business. According to Khatri (2009), massive human rights breaches
fueled the EU’s concerns about Nepal’s democratic process, as seen by the maltreatment , tyranny ,
and killing of thousands of citizens who were fighting for democracy (Khatri 2009). According
to Kugiel (2012), most of the deaths happened in the Maoist uprising , which claimed the l ives of
over 14,000 people from 1996 to 2005.
2.3.1 Economic Help
The European Economic Community (ECC), according to Borzel and Risse (2004), has
played a crucial role in helping Nepal economically since it started the diplomatic ties with the
country the 1970s. due to bad governance in the country, people were negatively affected, and
the European Economic Community (ECC) supported economic activities in the nation through
10 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
health, humanitarian assistance and education. Bhatta (2019) asserts that the ro le of EU
economic help to Nepal was planned to boost the country’s economic strength and enable its
underprivileged population, and shield citizens from human rights abuses committed by the
regime , mainly to people fighting for democracy.
2.3.2 Diplomatic Push
According to Calingaert, Puddington, and Repucci (2014), the European Union began
exerting diplomatic pressure on Nepal’s government in response to the humanitarian crisis
caused by the country’s prevalence of civil wars and internal conflicts, demand ing that it uphold
and protect human rights to reduce the country’s prevalence of human rights violations. In a
similar spirit, part of the EU’s diplomatic push on Nepal’s government encouraged the adoption
of democratic principles, given the monarchy’s fa ilure to protect and defend the people’s rights
and privileges. The death of about 14,000 people demonstrates this.
2.3.3. Cohesion on Ethnic and Local Restructure of Nepal
According to Nayak (2008), the EU aided Nepal’s democratic process by expressing
ha rmony on racial and regional reorganization, that was attained after the country achieved
democracy, as seen through the establishment of the Constituent Assembly, where members
from all over the country had an equal opportunity of representation . The EU’s support for
regional restructuring in Nepal was due to inequality representation in government as other
people from other parts of the country were not well represented . Democracy, according to
Khatri (2009), permits the country’s leadership and governance structure to be reformed,
allowing for unbiased representation of people from all parts of the country, and adequate
allocation of resource .
2.3.4: Interest in promoting democracy by the EU in Nepal
11 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
One of the main reasons that EU developed in terest to support democracy in Nepal was
due to the high incidences of violations of observed through oppression, torture and killing of
thousands of Nepalis fighting for democracy (Limbu, 2020). A significant part of the deaths
occurred during the 1996 t o 2005 Maoist insurgency that led to the deaths of over 14000 people.
Hence, the EU was alarmed with this occurrence in Nepal as part of its global strategy was to
safeguard , uphold and reserve human rights.
2.4 2.4. Theory of Evol utionary Governance (EGT)
EGT best defined research study concept as it aimed to understand the tactical role that
EU played in helping Nepal attain its democracy . This research study’s theoretical framework is
beneficial since it examines and elucidates the governance proc edure and its progress over time.
The EGT outline examined governance’s intricate and non -linear nature by identifying that
government and its components continuously interact , focusing on the co -evolution described by
organizations , players , and discourse s. The framework will enable Nepal to achieve its
objectives (Teorelland, 2019) .
2.5. Conceptual Framework
The study examined the European Union’s role in supporting Nepal’s democratic
transition. Several instances of its involvement in Nepal’s peace process were discovered
throughout the literature review, which will aid in formulating the study’s results and
suppositions . The research observes the role of the Europe an Union in Nepal’s democratic
transition to see if it aided or hampered the country’s goal of becoming a self -governing .
Therefore , the process of democracy in Nepal is dependent variable while the involvement of the
European Union in the process of democ racy i s an independent variable.
2.6 Research gap.
12 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
The research study addresses a gap in the EU’s engagement in Nepal’s democratic
process. It is recognized that Nepal became a democratic nation in 2008, with the European
Union playing a significant role in the process. Though , it is unclear how the EU participated in
the entire process, and the influence of its presence in realization of democracy in Nepal. As a
result, the research study addresses the underlying questions by conducting qualitative
assess ments of secondary sources.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
3.1 Method
The method used in this research is process tracing. Process -tracing methods refer to
tools to examine causal relationships in one case in research design. Process tracing is commonly
used in social science to track causal association. The causal mechanism, in this case, is defined
as an intricate system tha t yields an outcome following the interaction of several parts.
Therefore, process tracing entails the efforts to figure out the intervening causal process in the
dependent and dependent variables (Beach, & Pedersen, 2019). Examining causal mechanisms
help s deepen the causality relationship and identify the intermediate factors within the structural
cause and its supposed effect. Process tracing can be broken into three parts: theory testing,
theory -building and explaining the outcome. This study uses the t hird variant of process tracing
to explain the outcome. Explaining outcome process tracing tries to develop a sufficient
explanation of a mysterious outcome in a particular historical case. The goal is to develop a
sufficient explanation for the result of a case where the motivations are more case -centric rather
than based on theory.
3.2 Justification of the Method
13 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Process -tracing is a suitable method for this study. Due to the nature of the study, it seeks
to examine the democratization process in Nepal, where European Union and other players like
China played a significant role until the country attained democracy. The process of democracy
in Nepal was long and had obstacles along the way. It is worth understanding the process, how it
unfolded, and what made it a success . Therefore, to answer questions surrounding the process,
process tracing is a suitable approach as it seeks to examine the causal relationship between the
dependent and independent variables. It sings deeper to identify the intermediate f actors and their
effects on the outcome of a particular case in history (Beach, & Pedersen, 2019) . Hence, process
tracing was a suitable approach to this study.
3.3. Data Collection
The data was collected via case studies, which were preferred due to th e study’s
explanatory research approach. Howitt (2016) assert that case studies are a procedure or a record
of research that led to the growth of a certain individual , group, or state across time. The case
study in this research assessed Nepal’s democratization process. An in -depth analysis of the
European Union’s involvement was conducted to i dentify its role and whether its presence
positively or negatively contributed to Nepal attaining its demo cracy . The study needed excellent
secondary sources to generate thorough case studies on the democratization process, which were
found using the following search method.
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
4.1.1. Process of Democracy in Nepal
The study has established that the struggle for democracy in Nepal dates back to 1940s
and 1950s, when Nepalese began to show displeasure with the Kingdom form of leadership that
granted King all powers, and the hereditary passage of leadership , effectively preventing any
14 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
potential of the people contributing to how the country is governed . Moreover , the kingdom’s
mistreatment of Nepalese produced dissatisfaction and denied them equal participation in
governance of the country.
The process for fighting for democracy in Nepal started in 1951 when the Nepalese
revolted against the rule of Kingdom -ship. People demanded a democratic government that
would enable them participate in electing their leaders . Planned rebellion by Nepalese started in
1946 but was greeted with a comprehensive counter -offensive by the palace, which dispatched
soldiers to face the armed revolutionists (Khaniya & Sharma, 2018) . The rebels’ patience paid
out, and Nepal first experienced democracy in 1951 following the King ’s signing a noble order
allo wing for the adoption of partial government in Nepal.
However, the provisions of democracy were limited in Nepal at its introduction, both in
expression and application. For example, the general populace had no say in who led the country
or what policies w ere implemented for their benefit. Without the people’s consent, the King
played a role in the selection of the people that would represent others . According to Lawoti
(2019), the democratic government in place was not democratic as Nepalese had thought, a nd the
benefits that democratic citizens enjoy were absent.
Ruler Mahendra has presented the panchayat framework in Nepal, which upheld a non –
partisan agent framework at the illustrious court and a dynamic government. Amid the fractional
popular governme nt within the nation, the lord, to begin with, drawn nearer the open through his
open pioneers to distinguish one of them who would speak to the public’s best interface at the
illustrious court. In any case, with the heading of the modern ruler, all activi ties of the
commoners within the determination of their pioneers were cancelled. Paudel and Pahari (2020)
found that the lord, by and by chosen court agents from each locale, favoured and compensated
15 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
his mental cases and passionate devotees in differentiat e to fair -minded pioneers with a profound
craving to serve their individuals. Besides, the dynamic government forced by the ruler
eliminated any plausibility of building up or reintroducing popular government within the nation
since the ruler had outright control and specialist within the nation, and the other arms of
government were his manikins sealing.
During the 30 years , a long time after the 1960 topple, no major political exercises were
seen inside the country since of the strict commands from the Master to boycott all political
parties, political affiliations, and political advancements inside the country. The people had to
require after and stand with the government’s specialists or stand up to noncompliance. Most of
the political activist in Nepal were imprisoned for life or executed for committing political
crimes . Thirty years of abuse of the government on its peop le propelled them to require a
definitive courage and turn against the nation’s administration, defined the key changes in
Nepales e in 1990 s. In truth, the essential people’s advancement inside the country endeavoured
inside 1990, defined by major advancem ents of the masses on streets of Nepal.
Political parties that were operating underground due to tensions in the country came to
light. For example, Nepali Congress Party (NC) solidified the support of other pol itical parties to
push kingdom’s administra tion specifically, requesting the foundation of a vote -based political
system within the nation. Jeffery (2017) expressed that Nepal’s primary people’s development in
1990 effectively reintroduced popular government within the nation after 30 a long time. 28 The
political party was not driven by the individuals in requesting for popular government within the
nation but too pushed for the foundation of a sacred government in Nepal, as a substitution of the
genetic government, which was to share administratio n of the nation with a parliamentary
majority rule government. In this respect, the Nepalese had a democratic opportunity.
16 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
4.1.2. The EU Participation in Nepal’s Democratization
Lawoti (2019) argues that what interested EU in supporting democracy in Nepal was the
desire of Nepalese for a democratic country and constant wars , which led to the need of a vote
based system within the nation . The Maoist guerilla supported the Gracious War, which
supported aggressors to lock in the government forces and off ered to present a majority rule
go vernment within the nation. The consequence of the War claimed the lives of ove r 17,000
individuals . These individuals misplaced their lives amid the gracious conflict seen within the
nation as the fight toward vote based system seethed on. Other than that, it is recognized that
more than 4000 Nepalese died following the Maois t Advancement from 1996 to 2005.
Additionally, 8200 other people were killed by the regime in the same period . Hence , the reasons
for people to push for a democratic country are clear, which clarified the closeness of the EU in
Nepal with the aim to address the challenge that was facing Nepalese.
In this respect, it is outstanding that the EU chose to bolster Nepal to attain its vote based
system fro m the tyrannical government input since it was as it were through an equitably chosen
and introduced government that the predominance of respectful conflict and a humanitarian crisis
would pass on down within the nation. Paudel and Pahari (2020) argue that the EU was
committed to contributing toward struggle moderation by giving bolster to the establishment of
centre lawful teaching; presenting programs outlined to help the people affected by conflicts , and
improving the chances of Nepal to realize peace . Due to the continuous was that had been
witnessed in Nepal, there were many causalities of the war in the country that were suffering
from both emotional and physical wounds that needed support. Nepalese that had engaged in the
wars had either suffered phys ical wounds, or some were suffering from losing their relatives .
17 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
Their predominance within the nation was inferable to distinctive recognitions of favoured
models of administration shared by the open and the government.
The age between 1990 and 2015 was the key to the organization of vote -based system in
Nepal (Paudel & Pahari, 2020) . The two effective People’s Developments were conducted that
presented partial and full majority rule government the nation individually. Throughou t this
period, the EU’s interest in Nepal was evidenced through its support and organization of vital
areas linked to the administration and human rights within the nation, which driven to the
establishment of democracy in Nepal and the abolishment of the innate government. Songbird et
al. (2020) included that the truth guided the EU’s back for a democratization of Nepal and that
popular government would encourage political steadiness, social change, financial advancement,
and, most critically, maintaining of human rights within the nation, taking after its change into a
government law -based and inclusive republic. Besides, it is additionally apparent that the EU did
not, as it were, back Nepal to pick up majority rule government but moreover backed it to at tain
financial solidness through marking of respective exchange ties with the republic.
To cultivate assist participants in Nepal, the EU shaped an EU -Nepal relations
constitution, whose key part was to clarify advertisements execute EU arrangements in Ne pal,
investigate and report the financial, social , and political circumstances in the country , and carry
out vital arrangements given by its order. Jeffery (2017) argues that in Nepal’s background , the
EU is centred on three fundamental segments: instructi on, peace and solidness, exchange help,
and financial capacity building. Typically in expansion to other additional programs that EU
conducted in Nepal included assurance and advancement of human rights, lightening and
dispensing with a helpful emergency, tending to things relating to nourishment security, natural
18 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
preservation and assurance, viable administration of the open fund, secure movement, and
presentatio n of economic utilization and generation hones.
4.1.3. International interest in Democracy Process in Nepal
According to the report, the U.S , China and the European Union , and Russia were the
main foreign players interested in Nepal’s democratization, wit h each international entity
pursuing its own goals. They all have their special interests while supporting the country’s
democratic process and doing all they can to aid citizens of Nepal. The interests ranged from
natural resources, trade opportunities an d economic benefits among others .
Chinese Relations
Since the two nations signed the Sino -Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship on April 28,
1960, relations between Nepal and China have remained amicable. Jeffery (2017) states that the
Chinese was keen in maintaining the ties it had with Nepal. As a result, China did not actively
participate in the democratization process in Nepal. Therefore, it was not perceived as explicitly
supporting the people’s demand for democracy from the Kingdom form of government that was
oppressing them . Following the signing of Sino -Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship , relations
between Nepal and China have remained amicable.
Over the years, China has provided minimal international assistance to Nepal in
restructur ing its political institutions and systems to ensure political stability and progress. As a
result, this explains why, despite having a strong partner, the Nepal ese had to fight for so long
before achieving their democracy ambitions. Ghimire (2017) postula tes that lack of China to
actively help the people of Nepal push for democracy in their country was due to protect its
image with the government. Maintaining good relationship with Nepal was key to China as it
would continue with its economic and territori al progress to the Himalayan country. China is is
19 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
presently leading contributor to Nepal’s FDI , meaning that maintaining the status quo will benefit
China greatly economically. Contrary, India is another major country that border Nepal, and it
has employed over 1 million Nepalese migrant workers compared to less than 10000 Nepalese
migrant workers in China. .
European Union Relations
The European Union was identified as Nepal’s most suitable international partner , after it
has supported the country for several years including its push for democracy . The EU Delegation
office in Kathmandu was elevated to ambassadorial status in December 2009 due to the
friendship that existed between the EU and Nepal . As a result, the bilateral relationship is based
on sha red ideals and foundations such as peace , human rights, democracy , democratic
government, and prosperity. The regular travels of EU lawmakers to Nepal bolstered bilateral
ties between the two nations, demonstrating the EU’s commitment to restoring stabilit y and
peace in Nepal, which had been devastated by years of civil unrest due to the democratic process.
The European Union deployed observers to Nepal’s Constituent Assembly elections in 2008 and
2013.
The EU was instrumental in aiding Nepal’s peace proce ss, which resulted in a seamless
shift from kingdom to a democra cy in April 2006. Indeed, the EU was committed to ensure that
Nepal restore peace and protect human rights in country 35. It emphasized the necessity of
building trust and upholding the rule o f law and human rights in the country . The EU was a
powerful and reliable socioeconomic partner of Nepal, assisting the country to grow and develop
economically ( Chacón & Paik (2017) . In reality, it is Kathmandu’s greatest global trade partner,
consuming most of Nepal’s exports. The trade connections between the EU and Nepal have
improved in r ecent years.
20 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
4.2. Discussions
The study looked at the European Union’s role in Nepal’s democracy process from 2000
to 2015, specifically focusing on the role of EU from 2000 to 2015. Based on this research , the
EU was the active member of the international community in Nepal’s democratic +process;
however other nations such as the US and China also helped Nepal’s to attain stability and pea ce,
the results that concur with Chacón and Paik’s (2017) results . Following EU identification of
Nepal as a country that is in need of help, it established formal bi -lateral relations in 1975. As a
result, the EU began promoting human rights freedoms in N epal from the start, demanding the
regime to advocate and preserve the people’s constitutional rights, consistent with Jeffery’s
findings. At the same time, the EU started to push for the democracy in Nepal.
The study results were in concurrence with Ghimire’s (2017) results , which found that the
international community’s involvement in peace building process, particularly the role performed
by the EU, was crucial in hastening Nepal’s democratic transition. The kingdom form of
governance was against co nstitutional changes in Nepal . The desire of the king was to rein in
power, and have absolute power in the country . Indeed, extreme force was employed to revolt
against the monarchy , resulting in the deaths of nearly 14,000 Nepalese throughout the country
during the struggle for freedom . These study findings were in line with Acharya and Zafarullah
(2018), that had stated that the King ruled the country undemocratically that resulted to
oppression of people who were against kingdom.
In 2008, p eople were empowered to stand up to the repressive government due to the
EU’s support in this historical event, leading to the victorious overthrow of the totalitarian state
and establishing a democratic country . The same result were reported by Karaman and Cernov
(2017) where second peoples’ movement was perceived as a suitable approach to attain
21 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
democracy in Nepal . However, its success was contingent on international support, particularly
from the European Union, which ruled over the government and demanded that it uphold the
people’s justice and human rights. From this perspective, it’s worth noting that the EU backed
Nepal’s transition from kingdom to democracy because as it held that through democracy, human
rights of those oppressed were going to be protected . Amardeep and Rupinder’s (2019) reported
the same findings, which stated that a democratic form of government enabled people to
participate in their country governance either indirectly of directly through elections of
representative leaders.
The EU also involved in the Nepal’s democratization process through institutional and
structural support, enabling the country to carry out free and fair elections in 2008 , as well as
equipping the country to build and enable vital organizations that would ensure the c ountry
realize an enduring stability and sustainability. These study findings were in consistent with
Lawoti (2019) findings , that stated that EU had its observers in Nepal during the 2008 and 2013
Constituent Assemblies elections to ensure fairness , as p art of the country’s essential pillars of
democracy, strengthening. Furthermore, according to the report, EU parliamentarians
collaborated with Nepal’s Constituent Assembly to assist develop and promulgate the country’s
most participatory and inclusive con stitutional amendments, which is another significant pillar of
aiding the democratic process. These conclusions aligned with Paudel and Pahari 38 (2020), who
stated that Nepal’s new constitution was successfully promulgated in 2015 by the second
democratic ally elected Constituent Assembly.
In this light, it is clear that findings of the study in addressing the r esearch questions
confirmed the strategic role that the EU played , as a significant global player , in Nepal’s
democratic process. Nightingale et al. (2019) reported the same findings that stated that the EU
22 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
helped Nepal reform its governance structure and supported Nepal to develop and improve its
institutions to realize stability and peace that is long -lasting . These results also co ncur with
Khaniya and Sharma s (2018) findings . They established that economic collaboration between
Nepal and EU , which consumes most of Nepal’s exports, aided its institutional and capacity
growth. As a result, it is reasonable to say that Nepal’s democra tic restoration would have taken
far longer without the EU’s assistance.
Chapter Five: Conclusion
The study’s goal was to assess the role that European Union played to help Nepal to shift
from kingdom form of governance to democratic in 2008 when the coun try first participated in
free and fair elections . The study found that realization of democracy in Nepal was not easy as
there was the killing of the innocent people that were committed to the course of democracy in
the country . Based on the study’s concl usions, the process of democracy in Nepal began in the
1940s, and ended in 2008 when the country officially shifted from kingdom to democracy. In the
62 years that people fought for democracy, Nepalese were oppressed by a tyrant regime that has
not tolerated what it considered to be a challenge to the Hindu kingdom’s heritable power .
During the study, it was discovered that Nepal joined the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in
2006, following a 10 -year civil conflict. The elected Con stituent Assembly’s four -year tenure
was cut short due to the failure to produce a new constitution due to disagreements regarding the
integration of Maoist army, independent federalism, and federal rights. Although the second
Constituent Assembly was re -elected, the majority of members of the elected Constituent
Assembly eventually declared the new constitution of Nepal in 2015. Given that the transitions
in Nepal had to take long, the country was unable to attain results that people wanted by the
people . There are some Nepalese that are still not contended with the available constitution .
23 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
However, following Nepal’s shift to a democratic system, there has been some stability in the
government . Therefore, those that are elected at lead for five years, ensuri ng Nepal’s political
stability in the international arena.
Based on the study findings, the European Union has a commitment to ensure human
rights are protected and offer humanitarian aid to communities that are vulnerable around the
world; therefore, it played a crucial role to ensure that Nepal transition from a Kingdom to a
democratic country in which the King no longer has total power over the country . Nepalese now
exercise their democratic powers through the formation of a government for the people. Contrary
to monarchy system of leadership that encouraged passing of leadership from father to son , the
democratic republic empowered Nepalese citizens to vote for their le aders. The constitutional
checks and balances were put in place to prevent abuse of p ower or office and the power to
remove elective leaders for non -performance. The EU’s contribution to the country’s
democratization process can be seen in the financial aid supplied, the open condemnation of the
government’s human rights violations and per secution of the innocent, and direct backing for the
country’s democratization measures. Indeed, the EU played a role in the country’s successful
second People’s Movement in 2006, which finally achieved the country’s goal of removing the
authoritarian regi me from power and ensuring that democracy is realized that will see all people
equally represented in the leadership of the country . Also, the role that EU played in Nepal’s
democratization attainment is evidenced through its direct collaboration with Nepa l through the
EU liaison office, whose mission was to assist Nepalese citizens in building robust institutes of
authority , including the endorsement of a new and inclusive constitution, to strengthen the
country’s democracy, which had been achieved through sweat and blood.
24 DEMOCRACY PROCESS IN NEPAL
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Task Solutions of Homozygous Parental Phenotypes- BIO1CO

Task Solutions of Homozygous Parental Phenotypes- BIO1CO

Answe rs
Stude nt De tails
Answe r One
Answe r Two
a) Variety A and B organism’s genotype is everywhere in its genetic ma …

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Answe rs
Stude nt De tails
Answe r One
Answe r Two
a) Variety A and B organism’s genotype is everywhere in its genetic makeup. The term
“genotype ” may also reference to the alleles as well as variatio ns that a person
possesses in a certain gene or genetic region. The amount of alleles a person may have
in a certain gene is determined by the amount of copies of every chromosome pr esent
in that species, commonly known as ploidy (Costanzo, et al., 2019) . For variety A,
diploid organisms, such as humans, have two complete sets of chromosomes,
implying that each person possesses two alleles for every gene. When both varieties A
and B are identica l , the genotype is called homozygo us. When the alleles disagree, the
genotype is called heterozygo us. The alleles underlying blood protein A and B remain
codominant, as well as the “O” allele appears negative to both the A as well as B
alleles . To symbolize the genotypes, utilize AA, AO, AB, BB, BO, as well as OO
(Hou, et al., 2020) .
b) Domina nce genotype may be chosen since it influe nces the phenotype obtained out of
an organism’s genome but that’s not how such genes have been inherited. Whenever
partial dominance develops, the offspring often exhibit a variety of phenotypes. Even
though the kids may exhibit a range of phenotypes, they will all fall within a spectrum
defined more given homozygo us parental phenotypes (Mousavizade h, & Ghasemi,
2021) .
c) F1 refers to the very first parental cycle of sowing or animal progeny produced by a
parents of markedly differe nt paternal types.
d) It is possible to deduce the phenotypic proportions given knowledge of the mode of
inherita nce, which may be broken down into dominant as well as recessive forms
(Bhattacharyya, et al., 2019) . In genetics as well as selective breeding, an F1 hybrid
seems to be a word. When two true -breeding parents have been used in a monohybrid
cross, each parent provides one kind of allele to the offspring. In this particular
scenario, there is really only one genotype that might exist in the F1 child. All of the
progeny are Yy, as well as the seeds remain yellow (Bondue, et al., 2018) . Whenever
the children of F1 are crossed with others, t here is an equal chance that either a Y or
even a y will be passed on to the F2 generatio n from either parent. All of the plants in
the F1 generatio n would h ave the genotype S , which indicates that they are
heterozygo us, along with all the seeds would be s pherical.
e) Homozygo us is the situatio n or state that is described genetica lly as occurring when a
person has inherited the identica l DNA sequencing for a certain gene in both their
birth mother as well as their biologica l father. If an organism possesses 2 copies of the
very same dominant allele, then it is said to be homozygo us dominant. On the other
hand, even when an organism contains 2 versions of the very same recessive
phenotype, then it is said to be homozygo us recessive. This occurs when an individ ua l
is said to be genetica lly homozygo us. It is frequently discussed in relation to many
diseases.
Re fe re nce s
Bhattacharyya, R. P., Bandyopadhya y, N., Ma, P., Son, S. S., Liu, J., He, L. L., … & Hung,
D. T. (2019). Simulta neo us detection of genotype and phenotype enables rapid and
accurate antibiotic susceptibility determina tio n. Nature medicine , 25 (12), 1858 -1864.
Bondue, A., Arbustini, E., Bianco, A., Ciccarelli, M., Dawson, D., De Rosa, M., … &
Heymans, S. (2018). Complex roads from genotype to phenotype in dilated
cardiomyopathy: scientific update from the Working Group of Myocardial Function
of the European Society of Cardiology. Cardiov ascular Research , 114 (10), 1287 –
1303.
Costanzo, M., Kuzmin, E., van Leeuwen, J., Mair, B., Moffat, J., Boone, C., & Andrews, B.
(2019). Global genetic networks and the genotype -to-phenotype
relationship. Cell , 177 (1), 85 -100.
Hou, Y. C. C., Yu, H. C., Martin, R., Cirulli, E. T., Schenker -Ahmed, N. M., Hicks , M., … &
Caskey, C. T. (2020). Precision medicine integrating whole -geno me sequencing,
comprehensive metabolomic s, and advanced imaging. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences , 117 (6), 3053 -3062.
Mousavizade h, L., & Ghasemi, S. (2021). Genotype and phenotype of COVID -19: Their
roles in pathogenesis. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection , 54 (2),
159 -163.

Case Study Answers | Case of Clean Living Limited: AYB225

Case Study Answers | Case of Clean Living Limited: AYB225

Running Head: MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Table o …

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Running Head: MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1. Possible Consequences the Entity is Exposed to ……………………………………………………… 2
2. Key Stakeholders Affected by the Pandemic ………………………………………………………….. 3
3. Likely Changes to the Indicator …………………………………………………………………………….. 3
4. Variables from the Balance Scorecard …………………………………………………………………… 4
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Reference ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Introduction
The outbreak of covid-19 has impacted various industries across the globe, and travel
and tourism industry are not an exception. There have been the major consequences of covid-
19 on the businesses of the travel & tourism companies (Å kare, Soriano and Porada-Rocho Å„
2021). Hence, this report aims to discuss about the social, economic, and environmental
ramification of the covid-19 by considering the case of Clean Living Limited.
Discussion
1. Possible Consequences the Entity is Exposed to
Financial Impact
Since Clean Living Limited is atravel company, it will face an immediate impact on
its financial condition. It was cause loss of revenue because of the restrictions by the
governments across the world, border closure, and air travel restrictions. The people were
forced to stay at home, and business travel was also highly impacted. This highly impacted
the company ’srevenue, and eventually the profit of the company (Sharma and Nicolau 2020).
Social Impact
There was ahuge social impact of the covid-19 that Clean Travel Limited is exposed
to. Because of the spread of the covid-19 and increased losses, the business is forced to cut
down the jobs. The companies are laying off their employees as an outcome of the increased
losses and debt. The pandemic is expected to lead to the sharp increase in the inequality and
poverty in over every nation (Lustig et al.2020).
Environment Impact
It has been found that during the period of covid-19, the environmental condition has
been improved. The pandemic situation has significantly improved the quality of air in the
3 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
different cities all across the world, lessens noise and water pollution, lessens GHGs emission,
and lessens the overall pressure on the destinations of tourist that may help in restoring the
ecological system. But at the same time, there are some negative consequences of the covid-
19 pandemic, such as random use and disposal of the disinfectants, gloves, and mask;
increasing medical use; and untreated wastes ’ burden is continuously endangering the
environment (Verma and Prakash 2020). In regard, Clean Travel Limited will be benefitted
because this travel company is promoting green tour packages.
Economic Impact
The covid-19 has highly impacted the economic condition of a nation. Travel &
tourism industry majorly contributes to the GDP of the company, but due to the continuing
pandemic situation, this industry has been highly impacted. The unemployment rate has been
increased, and also recession is likely to hit. The economic and the long-term impact of the
covid-19 is expected to continue for long (Maital and Barzani 2020).
2. Key Stakeholders Affected by the Pandemic
The main stakeholders of Clean Travel Limited that will be affected by the covid-19,
are the customers (tourists), employees, investors, community, society, suppliers, and the
government.
3. Likely Changes to the Indicator
a) Return on Investment
Return on investment gives the entities ameans through which the profitability and
effectiveness of the number of investments are compared. During the time of the high
uncertainty of economic policy, particularly during the initial 2020s when the covid-19 hit the
countries, there has been considerable impact on the overall financial stock market and have
affected the returns of the investment. The continued loss incurred by Clean Travel Limited –
4 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
made it quite difficult for the company to enough return on the investment made by the
investors. Hence, itwill reduce.
b) Residual Income
Residual income helps in measuring the overall net income earn by the investment
that is beyond the lowest return on its overall operational assets. During the covid-19 period,
the residual income of Clean Travel Limited will lessen, because the costs of capital used for
making revenues will increase. Given the continuing pandemic situation, it is important for
the entities to assess its residual value and the asset ’suseful life at least year-end (Rizvi et al.
2020).
c) Economic Value Added
Economic value added is a measure of the entity ’s financial performance that is
mainly based on the residual capital that is calculated by subtracting entity ’scost of capital
from the operating profit. In case of Clean Travel Limited, the EVA is expected to reduce
because of the continuing pandemic situation. Any new project ’sprofitability is expected to
be reduced.
d) Earnings Per Share
EPS is the key financial measure that shows the entity ’sprofitability. It indicates the
profit of an entity per outstanding share of the stock. In case of Clean Travel Limited, the
EPS of company will reduce because the share market has been highly impacted due to the
continuing covid-19 situation (Suyanto 2021).
4. Variables from the Balance Scorecard
Economic Perspective: Diversification of tourism package
5 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
In case of the economic perspective, diversification of the tourism package is the most
key variable for Clean Living Limited. Given the continuing pandemic situation, the
company must offer diversification of the tourism package, so that more and more tourists
can be able to choose the destination in which their pocket fits. It will help in generating
maximum revenue for the company (Rogerson 2021).
Social Perspective: Safety
In case of social perspective, safety is the most key variable that Clean Living Ltd.
needs to consider. The company can ensure that it will ensure that appropriate safety
measures will be taken in relation to the covid-19, so that tourist are not subject to face any
risk of covid. It may ensure sufficient sanitization, and mask facility to ensure that safety of
the tourists is taken care of (Matiza and Slabbert 2021).
Environmental Perspective: Natural Heritage and the Biodiversity of tourist location
In case of the perspective of environment, natural heritage and the biodiversity of
tourist location is the most key variable that can be considered by the company. In the present
scenario of covid-19, the people are considering to visit the place that is full of natural
heritage and biodiversity, because there are less chance of getting infected. The company can
get benefit by emphasizing the tourists to visit such place, and also it will be competitive to
offer such destinations (De Souza Braga et al.2017).
Conclusion
Therefore, this report concludes that the covid-19 has exposed the tourist companies
such as Clean Travel Ltd. to various financial, social, environmental, and broader economic
consequences, and various stakeholders also affected by the covid-19. Further, there has been
changes in the key indicators of ROI, RI, EVA, and EPS, as an outcome of the covid-19.
Moreover, the expansion of Clean Travel Limited of its open tour packages may be further be
6 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
profitable once the pandemic ends, if the company properly make the strategy. The BSC
indicates that the diversification of the tourism package, safety, and the Natural Heritage and
the Biodiversity of tourist location, are the key variables of economic, social, and
environmental perspective that must be considered by Clean Travel to boost and strength its
current situation.
7 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Reference
De Souza Braga, S., Gontijo, B.M., Gon çalves, M.F., Malta, G.A.P. and Barbosa, M.F.P.,
2017. Tourism in the Biosphere Reserve of Serra do Espinha ço: Opportunities and threats to
the cultural and natural heritage. CICS-Publica çõ es/eBooks ,pp.547-566.
Lustig, N., Pabon, V.M., Sanz, F. and Younger, S.D., 2020. The impact of COVID-19
lockdowns and expanded social assistance on inequality, poverty and mobility in Argentina,
Brazil, Colombia and Mexico (Vol. 558). Tulane University, Department of Economics.
Maital, S. and Barzani, E., 2020. The global economic impact of COVID-19: A summary of
research. Samuel Neaman Institute for National Policy Research ,2020 ,pp.1-12.
Matiza, T. and Slabbert, E., 2021. Tourism is too dangerous! Perceived risk and the
subjective safety of tourism activity in the era of COVID-19. Geo Journal of Tourism and
Geosites ,36 ,pp.580-588.
Rizvi, S.K.A., Yarovaya, L., Mirza, N. and Naqvi, B., 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on
valuations of non-financial European firms. Available at SSRN 3705462 .
Rogerson, J.M., 2021. Tourism business responses to South Africa’s covid-19 pandemic
emergency. Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites ,35 (2), pp.338-347.
Sharma, A. and Nicolau, J.L., 2020. An open market valuation of the effects of COVID-19 on
the travel and tourism industry. Annals of Tourism Research ,83 ,p.102990.
Å kare, M., Soriano, D.R. and Porada-Rocho Å„,M., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on the travel
and tourism industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change ,163 ,p.120469.
Suyanto, S., 2021. The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Effect of Earnings Per Share on
Price to Book Value with Firm Size as Intervening Variable. Academy of Strategic
Management Journal ,20 (5), pp.1-6.
8 MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING
Verma, A.K. and Prakash, S., 2020. Impact of covid-19 on environment and society. Journal
of Global Biosciences ,9(5), pp.7352-7363.

Task Solutions of Social and Environmental Dimensions- ACCT3321

Task Solutions of Social and Environmental Dimensions- ACCT3321

1
Investment Analysis
Student Details
Course Details
Institutional
Instructor
Deadline
2
1. Concept of Mat …

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1
Investment Analysis
Student Details
Course Details
Institutional
Instructor
Deadline
2
1. Concept of Materiality
The fact that material elements must be appropriately recorded in a financial statement
defines materiality . The elements whose presence or omission will cause major change while
making financial decisions for clients of financial information known as m aterial items. The
materiality notion is an accounting theory that distinguishes between factors that should be
ignored and matters that should be revealed. This is the idea through which an organization
determines if the things are substantial enough to warrant disclosure (Dincer et al., 2019 ). These
are classified as material objects. In accounting theories, materiality is a concept that is known to
vary in importance and size . Business information in some cases might be significant to a
certain organization and be insignificant to another .
This may be shown by viewing two distinct businesses: a small business and a huge business.
Because of their size and sales, a huge and major expenditure to a small firm may be little and
insignificant to a large one. In an exposure draft (GRI, 2020, p. 8), GRI updated its definition of
materiality to: the firm emphasizes reporting on the ones that represent their important effects on
the people , environment and economy and influence on human right (Liu et al., 2021 ).
According to EFRAG, ‘materiality’ is a concept of significance under the Conceptual
Framework, emphasizing the need for financial statements to provide useful information to
customers for financial decision. Information becomes material when obscuring, omitting, and
misstating it can considerably be anticipated to af fect business decisions made by the main users
of such financial statement based on financial statement. This gives business information
concerning certain reporting entity , according to IFRS. Materiality is determined by what
information is required by co nsumers of general -purpose financial reporting, such as investors
according to ISSB (Mumtaz et al., 2018 ).
3
2. Advantages and Disadvantages
Sustain -a-Build is a normative concept that emphasizes intergenerational equity and is
commonly regarded to comprise of three dimensions; social, economical as well as
environmental. It can also be referred to as green building. Here are pros and cons of s ustain -a-
build.
Pros Cons
1. They are energy -efficient
2. Higher Fraction of eco -friendly
materials
3. Water efficient devices
4. Reduction in waste
5. More efficient recycling
6. Less air pollution
7. Reduction in green -house gas
emissions
8. Protection of our natural resources
9. Emphasis of renewable resources
10. Daylighting is utilized as best possible
1. High initial costs
2. It is not a magical pill
3. Energy supply may depend on weather
conditions
4. Unclear long -term effects
5. Technology
6. Maintenance might be difficult
7. Indoor air temperature might greatly
vary over time
8. Some people might not like the design
9. It is not suitable for all locations
10. Availability issues of design materials
3. Double Materiality
The (ISSB) began its operations long time ago; however, it was revealed at COP26 that the
Value Reporting Foundation and the CDSB is going to get merged into th is new est board. Th e
4
previous one is comprised of the (SASB) and the (IIRC) (IIRC). It implies that 4 of the top five
sustainability groups globally are now collaborating on benchmark ing reporting standard s. The
new incorporation of board of numerous prominent reporting standard groups (Ortiz -Teran et
al., 2021 ), favorable reception by governments and financial regulatory authorities, and
participation by the World Economic Forum with the support of accounting profession . The EU
(EUSustainable )’s Finance Disclosure Regulation, enacted in 2019, compels an investor to not
only report risk to the ir own , but the y should also report negative repercussions on the society
and environment (Shah et al., 2018 ).
It will be interesting to see how this plays out. Consolidated organizations have emphasized
their involvement in investor -focused sustainability disclosure, guided by a need to gu arantee
excellent information and minimize risk to the lender, insurer and investor. It is consistent with
the purpose of IFRS Foundation as an organization established to encourage the reporting of
information that has the potential to produce or detract from enterprise value. However, reporting
to insurers , lenders, or investors is just half of the story. The new board has a broader
responsibility to play in developing procedures to allow responsible business behavior toward the
environment and society (Sun, 2020 ). For instance, authorities, consumers, and society as a
whole must be aware of each company’s influence on environmental and social well -being. Even
though a company’s bad behavior is judged inappropriate in the field of sustainable development,
it may not hinder its financial return in the long or short. We have evidence to support such ,
since poor business behavior on social as well as environmental issues can in some cases be
awarded with larger company high investment returns or profits , at the price of global resource
depletion as well as social equality. It is widespread as a result of systematic inability of the
society to internalize social as well as environmental cost (Zahera & Bansal, 2018 ).
5
This idea of “double materiality” recognizes that opportunities and risks may be
substantial from a non -financial or financial standpoint. Financial institution as well as
companies should accept and manage role for the current as well as prospective negat ive
repercussions of the activities on environment, society, and individuals , according to the concept
of double materiality.
The EU Green underscore the importance of double materiality as the foundation for full
non -financial information disclosure. The idea of twofold materiality will be included in the EU’s
Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD), which is set to go into effect in 2023.
Part B : Email
Hi Aunt ,
The notion of double materiality recognizes that a corporation should report on
sustainability issues that are ; financially important in determining corporate value and , material
to the market, the environment, and people at the same time. The idea of doub le materiality
pushes environmental issues into the forefront of accounting standard -setting. Different
motivations for embracing this notion may result in drastically diverse interpretations, but the
financial system’s ability to allow a net -zero economy is dependent on how it is conceptualized.
Matthias Tiger elaborates. Despite having done a materiality assessment, businesses may
continue to receive questions from stakeholders concerning new problems. Modern slavery, for
example, receives Board attention even if it is not regarded to be important to the firm.
Responding to stakeholder expectations for corporate transparency may be accomplished through
the concept of twofold materiality. As a result, regardless of whether they are important to the
organiza tion, a corporation should report on any significant external repercussions.
6
Simultaneously, by recognizing financially material challenges, a company’s sustainability team
will be able to convey realistic targets and promote goals that are actually a busi ness problem.
When developing a plan to manage an effect, such as labor rights in the supply chain, a firm
must assess if the effect is a true danger for the organization or if it is part of the company’s duty
to limit any impact on people. Double material ity can help the organization build an effective
management plan and report on both internal and external concerns to various stakeholders in a
timely and appropriate manner (Zhou et al., 2019 ).
Regards
The S&P/ASX20 Index
Idiosyncratic risk refers to risk variables that are distinctive to a certain asset or
organization. The inverse of idiosyncratic risk is systematic risk, which is risk that affects the
whole market, such as political risk, economic risk, natural disasters, and so on. Oil spills,
reli ance on top management or the CEO, climate change affecting agriculture, and litigation are
examples of idiosyncratic risk. The ASX 20 is a limited stock market index that includes the 20
largest ASX -listed businesses, accounting for around 47 percent of t he Australian stock market
value. Companies such as Xero Ltd, Rio Tinto Ltd, and Rea Group are among them. Large
capitalization firms in the ASX 20 are influenced by macroeconomic issues like as currency
fluctuations, political risks, financial crises, and pandemics, just like any other company.
Currently, covid 19 is the greatest danger to such enterprises’ future financial prospects, despite
the fact that they have traditionally done successfully. If I were to invest $1 million in ASX 20
equities and gove rnment bonds, I would allocate 40% to equity and 60% to bonds. Bonds have
fixed income and hence involve lower risks. The stock market has yet to fully recover from the
worldwide epidemic and economic downturn. I would put 40% of my money into Rio Tinto Lt d
7
because it has showed resilience during the epidemic and I believe it would perform better in the
current market and economic conditions.
8
References
Dincer, H., Yüksel, S. and Martinez, L., 2019. Balanced scorecard -based Analysis about
European Energy Investment Policies: A hybrid hesitant fuzzy decision -making approach
with Quality Function Deployment. Expert Systems with Applications , 115 , pp.152 -171.
Liu, Q., Sun, Y. and Wu, M., 2021. Decision -making methodologies in offshore wind pow er
investments: A review. Journal of Cleaner Production , 295 , p.126459.
Mumtaz, A., Saeed, T. and Ramzan, M., 2018. Factors affecting investment decision -making in
Pakistan stock exchange. International Journal of Financial Engineering , 5(04),
p.1850033.
Ortiz -Teran, E., Diez, I. and Lopez -Pascual, J., 2021. An ALE Meta -Analysis on Investment
Decision -Making. Brain Sciences , 11 (3), p.399.
Shah, S.Z.A., Ahmad, M. and Mahmood, F., 2018. Heuristic biases in investment decision –
making and perceived market effi ciency: A survey at the Pakistan stock
exchange. Qualitative Research in Financial Markets .
Sun, C., 2020. Research on investment decision -making model from the perspective of “Internet
of Things+ Big data”. Future generation computer systems , 107 , pp.286 -292.
Zahera, S. A., & Bansal, R. (2018). Do investors exhibit behavioral biases in investment decision
making? A systematic review. Qualitative Research in Financial Markets .
Zhou, P., Zhou, P., Yüksel, S., Dinçer, H. and Uluer, G.S., 2019. Balanced scorec ard -based
evaluation of sustainable energy investment projects with it2 fuzzy hybrid decision
making approach. Energies , 13 (1), p.82.
9

Project Work Answers | Cost Model to Revaluation Model: ACG508

Project Work Answers | Cost Model to Revaluation Model: ACG508

Running head: ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
Name of the Student:
Name of the University:
Author Note:
1 ACCOUNTING
Solution to question 1
To,
The Board …

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Running head: ACCOUNTING
ACCOUNTING
Name of the Student:
Name of the University:
Author Note:
1 ACCOUNTING
Solution to question 1
To,
The Board of Directors,
BAU
Australia.
8May, 2022.
Sub: Benefits and implications of shifting from cost model to revaluation
model.
Sir/Ma ’am,
1. It is to be noted that according to the “AASB 116 ”,an entity has the power to decide
which model of measurement itis going to adopt for its assets after recognition where
the relevant statute allows the company to chose either of the “Cost model ” or
“Revaluation model. ”So, it is not mandatory to revalue all non-current assets if the
company does not adopt the revaluation model and on the contrary if the company
decides to adopt the revaluation model, then in such acase it becomes mandatory to
revalue all of its non-current assets whose fair value can be measured with reliability
otherwise is not required to revalue (AASB 116., 2019).
2. It is to be noted that as per IAS 38 or AASB 138 “Intangible assets ”,the “Intangible
assets can be effectively revalued that is the intangible assets may be carried forward
to the fair value deducted by any depreciation or amortisation or impairment losses if
there is any. However, it is to be specifically noted here that the intangible assets can
be revalued to fair value less depreciation or amortisation if only the fair value can be
reliably measured which is the mandatory criteria according to the statute (AASB
138., 2007).
2 ACCOUNTING
3. It is to be noted that the revaluation model greatly affects the depreciation charged
because under the revaluation method, the fair value is deducted by the accumulated
depreciation to get the carried forward amount of the asset. It is to be specifically
noted that the fair value may contain either the appreciated value of the asset or its
depreciated value over time and hence the depreciation is greatly affected by the
revaluation method (AASB 116., 2019).
4. It is to be noted that the journal entries must be passed for the revalued asset to the
amount of appreciation or depreciation that is either by debiting or crediting the
respective asset account. It is to be noted that any increase in the value of the asset
should be reported on the “Income Statement. ” Lastly, the “Revaluation surplus ”
account is credited present within the “Balance sheet. ”
5. If an asset is revalued up or down after the initial revaluation is done in the books of
accounts then the “Revaluation gain ”or “Revaluation loss ”is recognised respectively.
Now, if such asituation occurs and there is a“Revaluation gain ”getting recognised
then itshall be recognised within the equity otherwise such gain gets nullified against
any revaluation loss on the particular asset which was previously registered within the
“Income Statement (ACCA Global., 2022). ”
6. It is to be noted that the revelation of an asset determines the fair value of the asset
deducted by any accumulated depreciation or amortisation or impairment loss. So,
this allows acompany to effectively prepare to sell the particular asset if it intends to
or before any kind of merger so that the fair price before the merger may be
determined which is the up-to-date market value of the asset so that adeal could be
effectively fixed (Debitoor., 2022).
7. The primary difference between the revaluation and impairment is that the revaluation
can be a two-way process where the asset ’s value may either be appreciated or
3 ACCOUNTING
depreciated. While, on the other hand, the impairment denotes reduction in the price
of the asset only that is writing down the asset (Ideas.repec.org., 2022).
Thanking you,
Yours sincerely,
Financial Accountant.
Solution to question 2
Part 1
Income statement
Particulars Value
Sales revenue 29,991
Cost of sales (transport costs incurred for distribution) 16,800
Gross profit 13,191
Other Income
Lease revenue 420
Interest income 220
Gross profit plus other income 13,831
Administrative expense
Office supplies 5
Selling and administration
Security and transport expenses 3,800
Maintenance of buildings and equipment 50
Cleaning expense 250
Lease depreciation 520
Other expenses
Depreciation 550
Rates -land and water 35
Telephone &internet expenses 12
Electricity 3,350
Advertising 15
Insurances 75
Salaries and wages 1,800
Other employee benefits 150
Operating income 3,219
Interest expense 30
Lease interest expense 540
4 ACCOUNTING
EBT 2,649
Income tax expense 894
Profit 1,755
Dividends 950
Retained earnings 805
Part 2
Balance sheet
Particulars Amount Amount
Main Business Account 2,800
Accounts Receivable 11,000
Allowance for doubtful debts -530
Inventory 210
Prepayments 120
Short-term investment 6,000
Current assets 19,600
Land 4,000
Warehouses 7,325
Accumulated depreciation -610
Warehouse equipment 12,380
Accumulated depreciation -warehouse equipment -4,237
Office equipment 125
Accumulated depreciation -office equipment -84
Computers and computer programs 145
Accumulated depreciation -computers & computer programs -102
Investments 4,300
Non Current assets 23,242
Total assets 42,842
Accounts payable 11,200
GST payable 97
Income tax payable 900
Wages payable 10
Current liabilities 12,207
Lease liabilities 15,000
Dividend payable 950
Provision for annual leave 320
Provision for sick leave 280
Provision for long-service leave 127
Interest bearing liabilities 600
5 ACCOUNTING
Non-current liabilities 17,277
Total liabilities 29,484
Net assets 13,358
Contributed equity 4,850
Asset revaluation reserve 30
General reserve 2,687
Retained earnings 5,791
Total equity 13,358
Part 3
Cash flow statement
Sales revenue 29,991
Cost of sales (transport costs incurred for distribution) 16,800
Administrative expense
Office supplies 5
Selling and administration 0
Security and transport expenses 3800
Maintenance of buildings and equipment 50
Cleaning expense 250
Other expenses
Rates -land and water 35
Telephone &internet expenses 12
Electricity 3350
Advertising 15
Insurances 75
Salaries and wages 1800
Other employee benefits 150
Income tax expense 894
Cash flow from operating activities 2,755
Solution to question 3
Part 1
The first two cases of Mardies Transport Limited Private Medical Co is a non-
adjusting in nature because in the first case BAU is yet to acquire 30% shares in Mardies and
in the case of Private Medical co the sales is yet to be enhanced owing to securing of the
6 ACCOUNTING
contract and hence will not affect the financial statements of the present year (AASB 110.,
2018). While in the case of tax regime change post-April 2022 is an adjusting event as the
year-end happens on 30 June.
Part 2
Journal entry
Income tax expense … Dr =$849
Deferred tax assets …… Dr =$45
To income tax payable =$894
Part 3
In case of reduction of income tax, the “Deferred tax asset ”will be recognized and
will be recorded as an asset under the asset side of the balance sheet.
Reference
AASB 110. (2018). AASB 110 Events after the Reporting Period [Ebook]. Australian
Accounting Standards Board. Retrieved 8 May 2022, from
https://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB110_08-
15_COMPdec17_01-18.pdf .
AASB 116. (2019). AASB 116 Property, Plant and Equipment [Ebook]. Australian
Accounting Standards Board. Retrieved 8 May 2022, from
https://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB116_08-
15_COMPdec16_01-19.pdf .
7 ACCOUNTING
AASB 138. (2007). AASB 138 Intangible assets [Ebook]. Australian Accounting Standards
Board. Retrieved 8 May 2022, from
https://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB138_07-
04_COMPapr07_07-07.pdf .
ACCA Global. (2022). Revaluation and derecognition |F7 Financial Reporting |ACCA
Qualification |Students |ACCA Global .Accaglobal.com. Retrieved 8 May 2022,
from https://www.accaglobal.com/pk/en/student/exam-support-
resources/fundamentals-exams-study-resources/f7/technical-articles/revaluation-
derecognition.html .
Debitoor. (2022). Revaluation -What is revaluation? .Debitoor.com. Retrieved 8May 2022,
from https://debitoor.com/dictionary/revaluation .
Ideas.repec.org. (2022). The Differences Between Revaluation and Assets Impairment .
Ideas.repec.org. Retrieved 8 May 2022, from
https://ideas.repec.org/a/tdt/annals/vxixy2013p64-
72.html#:~:text=The%20major%20difference%20between%20the,which%20is%20th
en%20written%20down .

Task Solutions -Hstorical and Moral Information :EDEC103

Task Solutions -Hstorical and Moral Information :EDEC103

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Professor ’sName
University ’sName
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Christian Foundations of Education: Impact and An …

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Title
Subtitle
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Professor ’sName
University ’sName
Course Code
1
Christian Foundations of Education: Impact and Analysis
The subway school, imbibing the foundations of Christian education, has been a
common occurrence for children who follow the teachings of Christianity. With the basis of
following the principles set by the Bible, Jesus, gospels, and many other sages, Christian
education aims to inculcate the habits of the same in young children. This education is also
influenced by the teachings and beliefs of other scriptures and philosophers, which has finally
culminated in the contemporary teachings of religious education. It should also be noted that
these teachings can influence the development, beliefs, ideologies, and actions of agrowing
child (Ludlow, 2020). Special provisions could also be taken for designing, planning, and
modeling the teaching plan to reap the maximum benefits of the religious education provided
in Catholic schools. Keeping this in mind, the paper will assess the importance, basis, and
impact of Christian education while designing religious education so that itcan have the most
benefit in early childhood settings.
Christian education is referred to as the education that aims at informing, inviting, and
motivating young children to develop and hone anew type of thinking for understanding and
assessing the world (White, 1977). Christian education allows the child to also develop
thoughts about living, dealing with the outside world, and understanding their purpose in it
through aChristian lens (White, 1977). This would allow them to be in touch with the
creation of God, his teachings, and the pre-determined purpose that might already be set for
an individual (White, 1977). Contrary to popular belief, Christian education not only stands
on the teachings of the Bible or the religion but inculcates the values and views of the
Biblical perspective in everyday life (White, 1977). This would allow the young children to
understand, to some extent, the purpose and meaning of God, while learning about the nature
and origins of the world we are living in (Anthony, 2001). Christian education offers atype
of lifestyle, offered by people who have followed this way of living throughout their life.
2
This type of teaching is influential in moulding the minds of young children so that they can
form their thinking and habits while having the proper modicum of behaviour, thoughts, and
emotions as their basis (Anthony, 2001). Christian schools also provide an individual with
Christian thoughts and beliefs, supported by an atmosphere that whole-heartedly supports the
beliefs of Christ (Anthony, 2001). The teachers in the catholic schools focus on helping a
child grow while training the children for academic pursuits and having accountability for
their actions (Anthony, 2001). Therefore, Christian education aims to include the beliefs of
Christianity into the very being of the child so that they can attain adifferent way of life and
perspective, and accountability and beliefs.
This school of thought believes that teaching Christian education could be inculcated
through praying, preaching, and teaching the ways of life. The Christian belief suggests that
the Cristian belief stands on the roots of worshipping God and believing God to exist in every
atom of the world (Wilhelm & Firmin, 2008). Moreover, God is asupernatural entity that
could be only achieved through being in touch with him through constant belief in his power
and praying (Wilhelm & Firmin, 2008). Praying allows an individual to be in direct touch
with God. Another aspect of the beliefs stands on preaching and teaching the ways of God to
the world (Wilhelm & Firmin, 2008). This would ensure that more people are associated with
the right kind of thinking so that they also attain spirituality. The teachings are also offered to
keep Jesus as the teacher. He is the minister, who teaches his disciples so that they could
teach others. The twelve disciples include the students of Jesus who preached his teachings in
different parts of the world so that they could also walk the path to God. They are further
divided into sages and prophets who become the most vocal teachers. Moses was avery
famous prophet, who served as amodel for other prophets because of his way of instruction
(Exod. 18.2; 24:12; Isa 8:16; 42:21; Jer 9:13: Zed 7:12). It should also be noted that Bible and
the scriptures are the primary sources of information about the teachings of Jesus, the twelve
3
disciples, and other sages (Alexander, 2018). Bible is considered amajor text of Christianity
as itholds historical and moral information about the formation and conceptualization of
Christianity (Alexander, 2018). As believed by Paul, the Bible and the scriptures are made for
instruction (Rom 15:4). They would also help alearner lead afaithful life, which could only
culminate in good actions (Deut. 11:19; Alexander, 2018). Torah is another important
scripture that is used to teach, instruct, and guide the pupils in the Christian beliefs to attain a
religious and spiritual sense (Hos. 10:11; Prov. 2:17; 22:6; Alexander, 2018).
Christianity has been influencing the people of different ages since the time of the Greeks and
Romans and is, therefore, influenced by the philosophers of the time. Plato believed that
knowledge should be accumulated by gathering information and dialogue to attain truth,
goodness, and beauty (Gilson, 2019). This also led to Augustine ’sbelief that the knowledge
of God could be gained through the expansion of knowledge (Gilson, 2019). Isocrates
enforced the Christian beliefs by preaching that one should “speak well and think right ”and
the Christian beliefs could be understood through learning about the existence, nature, and
ethical teachings of Christianity (Gilson, 2019). Stoics focused on teaching people to live
their life as stated by the laws of nature so that an individual could submit to the divine
structure of the universe (Gilson, 2019). The roman philosopher, Quintilian believed that
education should make an individual intelligent and backed by moral beliefs while Cicero
suggested an education should produce an individual who can articulate their thoughts
properly and have the ability to discourse fluently (Karamanolis, 2021). The teachings and
philosophies have influenced the path of Christian education, which has all come down to its
contemporary usage in the present day (Karamanolis, 2021). In the many schools of
Christianity, there is acommon belief that Christ should be imitated for the achievement of a
spiritual level (Karamanolis, 2021). This imitation and assimilation of the behaviour of Christ
should include an individual shedding away their sins from their heart and mind so that they
4
are made completely new (Karamanolis, 2021; Lecky, 2020). Their way of life should also be
holy and morally correct (Karamanolis, 2021; Lecky, 2020). Thus, since the conception of
many thoughts and beliefs about Christianity, the teaching of the religion revolves around
creating amorally upright person.
There are several impacts of Christian education, especially when conducted in the
early childhood setting. Kim (2020) notes the impact of the Christian schools on the
cognition, and practical language usage of achild (Kim, 2020). She found that through the
use of early childhood language education activities based on the bible, the teachers
influenced the cognitive abilities of achild when the activities involving listening, speaking,
reading, and writing were included in the education (Kim, 2020). This effect was followed by
achange in their usage of more positive language (Kim, 2020). This reflected positively on
Christian education and increases the chances of an improved future (Kim, 2020). Christian
values influenced the moral and ethical aspects of children of catholic schools by focusing on
holistic child development of achild by focusing on the values of repentance, faith,
reconciliation, trustworthiness, the value of stewardship, and responsibility as compared to
students of anon-sectarian school (Jia, 2021). These values enhance the overall personality of
achild as they ensure that the child has some moral values and beliefs, which are also
effective in later life (Jia, 2021; Sitorus, 2019). There is also adedication to the achievement
of having positive values in the children that continue for life (Sitorus, 2019). Teachers also
become role models for children which also influence the behavior and personality of achild,
which is especially influential in the early childhood setting. The belief in God, including
habits like reading Bible and praying is also supported by the parent ’ssupport and guidance
(Sitorus, 2019). They would ensure that such habits and qualities get ingrained in the
personality of an individual, which is only supported by many other characteristics of
5
Christian foundations education (Sitorus, 2019). Thus, the foundations of Christian education
would impact the child holistically.
The Christian schools are away through which the Church can reach the masses and
influence the young children, which can be increased through proper strategizing, planning,
and development of holistic teaching through education. Recommended by Collier (2013)
that catholic schools plan out their teaching and education policies so that religious education
could be propagated to the masses. When compared with pastoral care, Christian schooling
should be asserted as more effective so that they can “be transformed by the renewing of the
mind ”(Rom. 12:2; Collier, 2013). The education and curriculum could also be changed and
influenced so that Christian thinking and beliefs could be integrated into them (Collier, 2013).
Students might come from different backgrounds and when they are influenced by the
catholic education (Collier, 2013). This would ensure that the preaching of the Catholic
thought is deeply rooted in the very being of their education (Collier, 2013; Ludlow, 2020).
Similarly, the teaching practices and pedagogy of the schools could also focus more on the
ethical beliefs which could be fostered by the teachers and teaching models (Collier, 2013).
This would ensure that the individual can gain the perspective of being acatholic student,
which would result in nurturing for thinking more inclined toward Christianity and its
principles (Collier, 2013). After the pandemic, while the world is reeling from the effects of
the pandemic, Christian beliefs and thinking could be promoted by targeting the emotions of
people (Ruben et al., 2020). Moreover, itshould also be noted that culture plays an important
role in affecting the early-childhood leaning of religious education, which could be mainly
resolved through the use of innovation and hybridization (Yang & Li, 2020). Thus, with
proper planning and analysis, catholic thinking could target children in early childhood
settings.
6
To conclude, Christian education is the teaching that aims at students and young
children to learn the beliefs, thoughts, and values of Christianity. This would ensure that the
children have anew way of life and are presented with adifferent perspective so that could
be influenced to move in the right direction. With the changing times, the catholic schools
inculcate such teaching through praying, preaching, and informing the students about the
mentioned religion and belief. An instructor could use the perspective of Jesus, the disciples,
and the prophets to teach the young children along with scriptures like Bible and Torah.
Christianity has also been influenced by the roman and Greek philosophers along with other
religions like Judaism. Christian education could change the personality and language use of
an individual along with certain values and thoughts. Moreover, the teaching, teacher, and the
parents also play an important role in bringing that change which could be further supported
by the planning, strategizing, formulating, and assessing the religious education, pedagogy,
and teaching models in an early childhood setting.
7
References
Alexander, I. (2018). Modelling our teaching on the Jesus of the gospels. In Reimagining
Christian Education (pp. 111-121). Springer, Singapore.
Anthony, M. J. (2001). Introducing Christian education: Foundations for the twenty-first
century. Baker Academic.
Collier, J. (2013). Models of Christian education. TEACH Journal of Christian
Education, 7(1), 2. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234108595.pdf
English Standard Version Bible. (2001). ESV Online. https://esv.literalword.com/
Gilson, E. (2019). History of Christian philosophy in the Middle Ages. Catholic University of
America Press.
Jia, L. (2021). Christian Values Education and Holistic Child Development from the Parent
Perspective in Santiago City, Philippines. Southeast Asia Early Childhood, 10(1), 86-
100. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1296708
Karamanolis, G. (2021). The philosophy of early Christianity. Routledge.
Kim, M. J. (2020). The change of Christian pre-service early childhood teachers through
development of Bible-based early childhood language education activities. Journal of
Christian education in Korea, 61, 165-201. https://doi.org/10.17968/jcek.2020..61.006
Lecky, W. E. H. (2020). History of European Morals, Vol. 1.
Ludlow, S. (2020). The Nature of Christian Early Childhood Education and Care-Celebrating
Existing Thinking and Practice and Casting aVision for What Could Be.
https://research.avondale.edu.au/edu_chapters/73/
Ruben, S., Setiawan, I., Illu, W., & Wahyuni, S. (2020). Promoting the affective domain
within global pandemic: the challenge of Christian education. International Research
Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2(9), 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.47392/irjash.2020.138
8
Sitorus, H. (2019). The Effect of Empowering Christian Education by Sunday School
Teachers, Teacher Exemplary Early Childhood education and Parental Guidance on
the Formation of Early Childhood Christian Character in North Tapanuli Regency in
2020. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 10 (2), 679-683.
https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v10i2/SR21207083421.pdf
White, E. G. H. (1977). Fundamentals of Christian education. Review and Herald Pub Assoc.
Wilhelm, G. M., & Firmin, M. W. (2008). Character education: Christian education
perspectives. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 17(2), 182-198.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10656210802433384
Yang, W., & Li, H. (2022). The role of culture in early childhood curriculum development: A
case study of curriculum innovations in Hong Kong kindergartens. Contemporary
Issues in Early Childhood, 23(1), 48-67.
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1463949119900359

Task Solutions-Identified Theme and Characteristics :AHU032

Task Solutions-Identified Theme and Characteristics :AHU032

Running head: CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
Name of the …

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Running head: CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
Name of the Student:
Name of the University:
Author Note:
1 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
Topic: Edgar Allan Poe is considered the father of gothic stories. Discuss the main
characteristics of the genre and write an analysis of “The Black Cat. ”
Introduction
The essay performs agenre evaluation of the short story “The Black Cat ”by Edgar Allan
Poe identified as horror fiction reflecting the conscience of the narrator and his actions in
relevance to the black cat. The critical analysis of the short story raises the question of the black
cat ’sexistence and its purpose in his life because the narrator is constantly getting triggered with
the presence of the cat. Initially the black cat, Pluto was the narrator ’sfavourite pet however, the
narrators disposition changed over the years leading to him becoming moody, irritable and
disregarding of others ’feelings 1.The personal violence that was experienced by the narrator ’s
wife was also experienced by other pets however, Pluto was still untouched. “From my infancy I
was noted for the docility and humanity of my disposition. ”2reflected the author however, later
when the cat avoided the author in his fiendish state, the author cut out the cat ’seye. This
represented an example of the way the author underwent perverseness, inclination towards spirit
of weeks and vengeance 3.The horrific incidents that took place in the story reflects the narrator
and his perception of the Black cat as an offending representation of human emotions, neurotic
obsession, torment and psychological instability.
1Lazim AK. Down deep in the dark: A semiotic approach to Edgar Allan Poe ’sthe Black Cat.
Advances in Language and Literary Studies. 2018 Feb 1;9(1):53-61.
2Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
3CÄ°VELEK D. The Detailed Analysis of’the Black Cat’by Edgar Allan Poe in Stylistic
Perspective. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fak ültesi Dergisi.
2 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
Summary of “The Black Cat ”
The story the Black cat is asupernatural fiction that discusses psychological state of
human emotions, power over one ’sperception of the surroundings, grotesque and representation
of one ’sinternal conflicts. The central theme of the story is deck and murder, the Black cat has
been identified as an omen of bad luck considering to generators tryst with ablack cat in the
form of taking out his eye, hanging him from the tree to murdering his wife while trying to kill
the cat are all representing of the ill will that the narrator earned 4.The story started off with a
positive disposition and supportive reflection about family life of the narrator, his positive
relationship with his wife and the pets. However, slowly as the story progresses the narrator
experiences severe psychological issues of instability and aggression leading to him feeling
irritated and angry towards all pet. His relationship with his wife became grim leading to him
becoming sinister to the level that he killed the first cat leading to his house burning down on its
own. The narrator did not connect the two events instead he justified the impression of agigantic
cat with arope around its neck on the wall which he rationalises as impressions. The discovery
does not impact the narrator considering he is involved and invested in his psychological state of
hatred that he is unable to relate to the situation 5.The intensity of his mental condition became
clearer when there came another cat with whom he fell into the same pattern where the narrator
started experiencing hatred for it. The murderous sentiments led to him attacking the cat and in
the process of killing his wife. It not only impacted his behaviour and mental stability but also
led to him trying to hide the crime by entombing the body of his wife behind the plaster of the
4Alhmdni TA, Shamsah AM, Al-Zamili FM. In Search of the Cause of Violence in Edgar Allen
Poe’s “The Black Cat ”.International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 2020;24(04).
5Silva NP. Obsession in Edgar Allan Poe’s” The Black Cat” and” The Tell-Tale Heart”.
3 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
damp walls in the basement. Later when the police unexpectedly visited, the narrator is calm and
collected even when they visit the crime scene, however, the narrator himself taps the wall to
show the great craftmanship of his house 6.A long and loud cry emanates from the wall behind
which his wife ’sbody is trapped reflecting the truth of the murder leading to the narrator being
arrested. The cat is sitting on the head of the corpse representing asymbolization of the crime
committed by the narrator. The short story is an account that is written by the author on the eve
of his death and the justice that is reflected in terms of the presence of the cat, areminder of the
narrator ’sintense mental state and emotional perception 7.
Identified Theme and genre characteristics
Justice
The genre of gothic fiction represents the despair that is observed in the way the narrator
experiences irritation, violence, fiendish power over his pets and his wife as well as puts them
through difficult behaviour. “My entire worldly wealth was swallowed up, and Iresigned myself
thenceforward to despair ”8reflects the mental conditions of the narrator who is going through
extreme feelings of negativity and then remorse. During the beginning of his psychological state
of his bout of irritation and hatred, the narrator experiencing emotional ups and downs where he
is constantly suffering from the hatred he feels towards people and animals surrounding him. The
6Hidalgo Herrero B. Unmasking the truth: insane narrators in Edgar Allan Poe ’s“The Tell-Tale
Heart ”and “The Black Cat ”.
7Johansen I. In the Empire of Signs: Edgar Allan Poe ’s“The Black Cat ”and the Pure Fantastic.
InWalking Shadows 2015 Jan 1(pp. 193-215). Brill.
8Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
4 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
deliberation of murder and violence practiced against the people and the animal around him
reflects the way he behaves. “and whose informing voice had consigned me to the hangman ”9is
asymbolization of the cat who represents the justice that is being served for the narrator who
killed his wife. The incidents reflect the significance of justice and the way itis served to the
narrator considering the influence his psychological state and the supernatural representation of
the black cat in the short stories is reflected 10.
Truth
The facts that the stories reflect informs of the way truth persists even with when the
narrator takes alot of precautions towards hiding his truth. The state of his mental being, his
constant irritation and aggressive reaction towards the pets, including Pluto the cat who avoided
the narrator after he realized the way he might be treated as well as his wife. Considering his
wife was the one who was of the sweet disposition and tried to protect the pets from his fiendish
reaction, she is murdered on one such instance when he tries to kill the second cat 11.There
remains aquestion that are there two cats or itis the supernatural element in the form of the
second cat who resembles Pluto. “The corpse, already greatly decayed and clotted with gore,
stood erect before the eyes of the spectators. ”12 It was the moment when truth came out in front
of the police and the narrator knew he was caught. When evaluating the performance and
9Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
10 Shehabat AK, Khair BB, Al-Shara Z. Revisiting Domestic Violence in Poe’s “The Black Cat ”:
The Narrator Between Psychological Struggle and Egoistic Masculinity. Theory and Practice in
Language Studies. 2022 Feb 1;12(2):356-61.
11 Gale CL. A Study Guide for Edgar Alan Poe’s” The Black Cat”. Gale, Cengage Learning; 2016.
12 Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
5 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
reaction of the narrator when the police visited, itis clear that somewhere he wanted people to
know about the murder but also on the other hand pretended to have an upper hand on them. “let
me confess itat once -by absolute dread of the beast ”13 reflects the perception of the cat for the
narrator where he expresses that he is scared of the cat. This was the truth that was supported by
“thus for one night, at least, since its introduction into the house, Isoundly and tranquilly slept ”14
which informs of the narrator ’smental state in the absence of the cat. He is mentally at asafe and
calm state which reflects his sweet disposition that he expressed in the beginning of his narration.
Characterization in the story
The main character, the narrator was abused by his friends especially due to his
compassion and kind heart making him secluded leading to the company of his pets. However,
after he has married acompanion with adisposition as sweet as him who loved his pets, the
narrator started changing in his perverseness as well as his faculties. His aggression and fiendish
behaviour represented his loss of “humanity ”targeting his pets and his wife. This led to the
events with Pluto and the second cat, aphantom presence reflecting the experience of
impulsiveness, primal feeling of the narrator comes out 15.The caring and criticizing of human
heart reflecting the negative feeling experienced by the narrator informs of the violence that he
uses on animals and his wife. “For months Icould not rid myself of the phantasm of the cat; and,
during this period, there came back into my spirit ahalf sentiment that seemed, but was not,
13 Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
14 Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
15 Sonnefeld B. The Uncanny Mind: Perpetrator Trauma in Poe’s “The Black Cat ”.The Edgar
Allan Poe Review. 2021 Nov 1;22(2):329-42.
6 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
remorse. ”reflects the suffering experienced by narrator when he feels the anxiety and panic
whenever the cat makes apresence or he thinks about it. This reflects the severe mental issues
and his psychological sufferings that is perpetual in the inclination towards self-protection and
survival.
Psychological through supernatural in Edgar Allan Poe ’sstory
The story of “The Black Cat ”has an indefinite boundary between the reality and the
supernatural reflecting the literary elements used in the story as both rational and irrational to
justify the perspective of the author. The presence of the “second cat ”which has the
characteristics of the changing the colour of the fur, not getting killed and being awitness to the
murder of the wife, making the sound from behind the wall are all events that challenges the
reality 16.The plot twist reflects the possibility of the supernatural and itsupports the insanity of
the narrator in terms of the treatment of the cat after his wife ’smurder. Considering the
appearance of the cat in the basement is alogic that cannot be justified especially when the
narrator is so meticulous, the supernatural and realistic line blurs. The first cat “Pluto ”
experienced all the physical pain and worldly experience that the narrator performed on it
however, the second cat appearance is dramatic and his presence fantom. He escapes the wrath
of the narrator at the right time and also plays acrucial role in getting the narrator caught which
reflects on the possibility of the supernatural plays in the story 17.The gentle character of the
16 Madjda BO. The Complex of Paranoid Schizophrenia in Edgar Allan Poe’Short Stories Cases
of the Study:” The Tell-Tale Heart,”” The Black Cat,” and” The Fall of the House of Usher”.
17 Seki J. Psychological Landscape: Inflated Minds and Phantasmagoric Features in Poe’s” The
Black Cat” (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook).
7 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
narrator, who is the central character completely changes once he is under the influence of
alcohol and his trust issues arises in terms of his loneliness and having no friends. “My
tenderness of heart was even so conspicuous as to make me the jest of my companions. ”18
represents the bullying and insults the narrator had to experience in the hands of his friends
making him unable to trust anyone, be ithis wife or pets who gave him or showed love.
Narration and symbolization in the story
The narration is filled with symbolization of “egoistical masculinity ”and “psychological
struggle ”of justice and truth reflecting the civilization of humans suffering from life-threatening
violence and crimes being committed. The language used by the narrator reflects the way he
considers himself with acalm disposition however, itchanges over the years reflecting the
change of personality. The persistent violence he shows towards his cat, his pets and wife once
time passes reflects on concealing his true nature of having acalm disposition 19.The black cat is
asymbolization of “truth ”of the violent nature of the human beings and his tendency of physical
violence towards his loved ones. His masculinity does not help him realise his mistakes instead
he justifies his violence by targeting the cat and his phantom presence however, from the
beginning itwas the violence and the aggression that the narrator shows towards his pets and his
wife 20.The analysis of the physical and domestic violence critically informing of the change that
18 Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
19 Lazim AK. Down deep in the dark: A semiotic approach to Edgar Allan Poe ’sthe Black Cat.
Advances in Language and Literary Studies. 2018 Feb 1;9(1):53-61.
20 Mathew R. Depiction of Psychological through Supernatural: A Reading of Edgar Allan Poe ’s
Selected Short Stories.
8 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
the narrator goes through is phase in life reflecting the influence and significance of the patterns
in which his aggression impacting the surrounding environment.
Conclusion
In conclusion, the psychological state of the narrator informs of the experience of
melodramatic experience, gender identity, decomposition, psychological integration, personality
disorder and others reflecting on his emotional transformation. The challenges experienced by
the narrator represent of socio-political perspective of the social problems in terms of
experiencing bullying, exoticism, horror, supernatural, madness, death, high emotions, violence,
mystery and others. When scrutinizing the actions of the narrator, itis clear that his
psychological background and mental state of excessive violence reflecting his behaviour
towards his pets and his wife. The authority and the intensity based on which the narrator
expresses his hatred towards the cat informs of the way his passion towards violence and
aggression is observed. The genre of horror fiction reflecting the line blur between reality and
supernatural informs of the way Poe enforces the psychological state and perception of the
narrator on the readers.
9 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
Bibliography
Alhmdni TA, Shamsah AM, Al-Zamili FM. In Search of the Cause of Violence in Edgar Allen
Poe’s “The Black Cat ”.International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 2020;24(04).
CÄ°VELEK D. The Detailed Analysis of’the Black Cat’by Edgar Allan Poe in Stylistic Perspective.
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fak ültesi Dergisi.
Gale CL. A Study Guide for Edgar Alan Poe’s” The Black Cat”. Gale, Cengage Learning; 2016.
Hidalgo Herrero B. Unmasking the truth: insane narrators in Edgar Allan Poe ’s“The Tell-Tale
Heart ”and “The Black Cat ”.
Johansen I. In the Empire of Signs: Edgar Allan Poe ’s“The Black Cat ”and the Pure Fantastic.
InWalking Shadows 2015 Jan 1(pp. 193-215). Brill.
Lazim AK. Down deep in the dark: A semiotic approach to Edgar Allan Poe ’sthe Black Cat.
Advances in Language and Literary Studies. 2018 Feb 1;9(1):53-61.
Madjda BO. The Complex of Paranoid Schizophrenia in Edgar Allan Poe’Short Stories Cases of
the Study:” The Tell-Tale Heart,”” The Black Cat,” and” The Fall of the House of Usher”.
Mathew R. Depiction of Psychological through Supernatural: A Reading of Edgar Allan Poe ’s
Selected Short Stories.
Poe EA. The Black Cat & Other Stories. Noura Books; 2016 Apr 29.
Seki J. Psychological Landscape: Inflated Minds and Phantasmagoric Features in Poe’s” The
Black Cat” (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook).
Shehabat AK, Khair BB, Al-Shara Z. Revisiting Domestic Violence in Poe’s “The Black Cat ”:
The Narrator Between Psychological Struggle and Egoistic Masculinity. Theory and Practice in
Language Studies. 2022 Feb 1;12(2):356-61.
Silva NP. Obsession in Edgar Allan Poe’s” The Black Cat” and” The Tell-Tale Heart”.
10 CHARACTERISTICS AND ANALYSIS OF “THE BLACK CAT ”
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Quality of Light through Diverse Lenses- ENGL200A

Quality of Light through Diverse Lenses- ENGL200A

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A quality of Light
through
Diverse L enses
1
A quality of Light
Richard Wagamese was a writer who inherently belon …

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A quality of Light
through
Diverse L enses
1
A quality of Light
Richard Wagamese was a writer who inherently belonged to a postcolonia l identity
and who aimed to write about the oppression of this identity. Through the book ‘A Quality of
Life’ Wagamese presents a narrative discourse wherein the ‘Indian’ identity is def ined in the
ways in which the west treats it. The present paper aims to analyze the book through three
distinct lenses which are, the Archetypa l lens, the Postcolonia l lens , and the psychoanalytica l
lens (Wagamese, 2019) .
Further, it is important to addre ss that Wagamese deliberately employs a young
narrator initia lly, Joshua, the narrator, is a ten -year -old Ojibway boy who was adopted by
whit e and devout Christia n parents. A quality of light is the tale of Joshua’s enduring
friendship with Johnny Gebhardt , a child with a traumatic past as well as a traumatic future.
Archetypal lens
A lens used to enhance the reading experience and make the readers understand the
reality of the narrative trope and the settings of the literary works.
‘We looked at each other openly and without fear. In his eyes , I saw the energy and
the life force, strong and resilie nt, directed now by compliance to a more benevolent spirit, a
living force within him. In my eyes, he was not a warrior, a white man, a radical or a threat.
He was my friend. Laughing Dog. Johnny Gebhardt’ (Wagamese, 259) .
‘They looked around the room and I sensed they were seeing it in an entirely different
way than they ever had before, that it would always represent something far deeper than
simply another room they worked in. And so we are transformed by circumsta nce ’
(Wagamese, 259 -260) .
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‘I moved towards the doors with the first woman. Swallowing hard and hands clasped
in front of her chest, she looked at me with desperation, and I smiled reassuringly at h er. The
tape came easily off the door frame and I set the pseudo explosives on the floor. Johnny’s
handiwork was incredib le. It looked for all the world as though the wires connected the
dynamite to the detonating device’ (Wagamese, 261) .
Postcolonial lens
Examines the ways in which the post colonized identities are constantly and
consciously othered by the west.
‘A Canadian flag fluttered over the scene, and I thought how the fabric and texture of
the country had been rent with the locking and loading of weapons in Oka and in the silent
flow of blood from the body of Johnny Gebhardt’ (Wagamese, 267) .
‘They die from poverty, despair, futility, desperation, melanc ho ly, assimilatio n,
racism and hatred. Arrows fired from the bow of colonizatio n. Arrows that s eep their poisons
into the life blood of the People. The poisons of violence, suicide, drunkenness, cultura l
alienatio n and racism itself. Thirteen arrows and thirteen poisons. We return those arrows and
poisons to you today’ (Wagamese, 267) .
‘The People’s troubles have manifested themselve s throughout the entire brief history
of your presence in this land and we say — shame on you. Shame on you for the death of
vital cultures. Shame on you for the outlawing of ceremony and ritual, for the death of
langua ge s, for the rape and pillaging of resources and peoples, for the broken treaties, the
suicides, the drunkenness, the violence, the poverty and the rejection of ourselves. Shame on
you for five hundred years of arrogance, mute acceptance and ignorance. Shame on you’
(Wagamese, 267 -268).
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Psychoanalytical lens
Evaluates the ways in which the author’s personal experiences impact the discourse
that the text undertakes.
‘We are the children of someone else’s history. We are born and we die under the
shadow of a foreign sense of time. We carry within us the infertile seeds of promises sewn by
the hands of greed. Withered and dried, they are lodged in our breasts like arrows, oozing
their poisons, singing their histories. Indians die’ (Wagamese, 267).
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References
Wagamese, R. (2019). A quality of light . Anchor Canada.