COMPSCI4405 Research Methods in Software Engineering and Computer Science : Tran

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COMPSCI4405 Research Methods in Software Engineering and Computer Science

Task:

Self-healing Concrete Technology in Transport Infrastructure

The use of concrete for industrial construction purposes can be dated back to 1824. It has widely been used around the world as a construction material for its remarkable strength, durability and efficiency [1]. It is used more than any other manmade material in the world and is second most consumed substance in the world-behind water. A study in 2002 found that 1.5 billion tonnes of cement, 9 billion tonnes of sand and rock, and 900 million tonnes of mixing water is used annually. The concrete industry alone uses 12 billion tonnes of raw material each year [2].

However, concrete performance deuterates over time and is sensitive to crack formation typically under tension. Due to cracking the performance of concrete is compromised via ingress contamination, potentially leading to corrosion in steel as the atmospheric waterinfiltrates through cracks. Repairing concrete is a costly and difficult process that will put lives at risk. This research considers the application of self-healing materials with respect to performance and durability, the benefits of self-healing concrete applied to transport infrastructure and provide a life-cycle costs for both the self-healing and conventional concrete [3-4]. Furthermore, the benefits obtained based of practicable application of this technology in Netherlands is assessed.

Self-healing materials have been a topic of intense research for over 15 years, prolong the durability of concrete [4-7]. The downside of conventional concrete is the formation of crac keep inside the structure, which can be impossible to repair. The healing agent can be achieved through two primary strategies namely autogenous and autonomous. Autonomous methods consist of different types of chemical-base healing such as polymer-based epoxy encased in micro-capsules [8]. Upon failure of concrete, the micro-capsules are broken; discharging the self-healing agent into the capillary of cracks. The self-healing agent reacts with moisture, air, or temperature activating the healing property [9]. The method is tested to have more than 100% regain in strength and stiffness, although it depends on the subsequent released volume of healing agent and the type of agent [9].

Autogenous method is a biotechnological approach and an alternative method as the chemical agent of autonomous method weaken concrete integrity. The bio self-healing is achieved in the presence of certain bacteria that induces calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 is induced when a crack is generated and a result of the metabolic activity it seals the defects [14]. It performs as the membrane dissolve once in contact with air, therefore, when a crack forms the mixture of air-water decreases the level of pH activating when the encapsulated agent when hydrated [10].

However, further research is required on calcium precipitation activity (CPA) as previous studies evaluated the effectiveness by measuring width of repaired crack, given the microenvironment and its complexity; the measurement is far from accurate [13]. Various tests have been conducted based on the established testing method such as screening and identified highest CPA of a bacterial strain, the influential factors such as carbon and nitrogen source [13-14]. This study on biotechnological approach will establish further development of self-healing concrete.

Studies have found that it has unprecedented benefits like maintenance savings that ultimately reduces traffic jams, as conventional concrete cannot self-repair, and prone to corrosion decreasing the service life [10]. In 2008, the Netherland government surveyed the total cost

Figure 1: Illustration of two chemicals

expressed as human hours lost in traffic, accounted to 2.8 billion Euros of which 110 million Euros were maintenance related. With self-healing concrete incorporated, the Netherland transport were able to extend road service life by 50% – from 12 years to 18 years [11].

Furthermore, application where reliability and safety are key issues such as in tunnels and storm surge, self-healing materials are most likely to be applied in future [5].

Research Gap

  1. What is the most beneficial healing agent used in cementitious materials found in literate review?
  1. What is an approach of using the Nanofibers for self-healing of cementitious materials?
  1. How is the width and volume of discrete microcracks inside concrete determined?
  1. What are the parameters of the amount of healing capable and how it is determined the healing has reached its maximum healing capacity?

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