# TELE3350 Communications Networks:What is the Minimum Cluster Size

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## Questions:

1. (4 marks) For each of the following wireless frequencies determine the wavelength

(i) 744 kHz (AM radio)    (ii) 1900 MHz (Cellular phone)

(iii) 2.4 GHz (WiFi)   (iv) 75 GHz (planned 5G band)

2. (4 marks) What is the EIRP (dBm) for a transmitter antenna with a transmit power of 110 mW using an Antenna with gain 9.5 dBi?

3. (6 marks) Consider a 2 km wireless communication link in free space, with isotropic antennas, operating at a carrier frequency of 3 GHz. Assume the transmit power is 100 W and the transmit antenna has a gain of 8 dB. What receive antenna gain is needed to achieve a receive power of 3 W?

4. (4 marks) What is the maximum possible bit rate without errors over a noisy channel with a bandwidth of 20 MHz and SNR = 11 dB? Assume the noise is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

5. (3 marks) A 16 QAM modulated signal is transmitted over a wireless channel of bandwidth 30 MHz. Assume the modulation bandwidth formula is used with r=1.

a. What is the baud rate of the signal?

b. What is the data rate of the signal?

c. What is the bandwidth efficiency?

6. (3 marks) Suppose you wish to transmit data at a rate of 40 Mbps over a wireless channel of bandwidth 5 MHz. Suppose QAM modulation is used. What is the minimum number of constellation points needed? Assume the modulation bandwidth formula is used with r=1.

7. (3 marks) In 802.11 DCF explain why SIFS is less than DIFS.

8. (3 marks) In CSMA/CA each node continually monitors the channel. In the 802.11 DCF, what does a node do to its backoff counter when it detects that the channel is in use?

9. (2 marks) How does a transmitting station in 802.11 know that a packet has been received correctly?

10. (2 marks) Which channel is used to send out the identity of a base station in a cellular network?

11. (6 marks) A metropolitan area covers 200 km2.

a. What is the minimum number of 2 km cells required to provide radio coverage of the entire area?

b. If the path loss exponent is 3.5 what is the minimum cluster size that will ensure 15 dB of S/I (Signal/Interference) at the cell boundary?

c. If there are 370 channels allocated to provide service, how many channels are available in each cell in part (b)?

12. (2 marks) Draw an example of a cell layout for hexagonal cells with a frequency reuse factor of 4. What is the minimum cell separation for cells using the same frequency bands?

13. (2 marks) What is meant by the Signal Hysteresis Threshold in connection with handover between cells?

14. (6 marks) Suppose a wireless cellular network uses a cluster size 4.

i. Suppose the path loss exponent is 2.5. What is the signal to interference ratio?

ii. Suppose the path loss exponent is 3.0 instead. What is the signal to interference ratio now?

iii. Explain why the SIR increased/decreased/stayed the same.

### TELE3350 Communications Networks

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